Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Access to improved sanitation plays an important role in child health through its impact on diarrheal mortality and malnutrition. Inequities in sanitation coverage translate into health inequities across socio-economic groups. This paper presents the differential impact on child mortality and diarrheal incidence of expanding sanitation coverage across wealth quintiles in Nepal.
We modeled three scale up coverage scenarios at the national level and at each of the 5 wealth quintiles for improved sanitation in Nepal in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): equal for all quintiles, realistically pro-poor and ambitiously pro-poor.
The results show that equal improvement in sanitation coverage can save a total of 226 lives (10.7% of expected diarrhea deaths), while a realistically pro-poor program can save 451 child lives (20.5%) and the ambitiously pro-poor program can save 542 lives (24.6%).
Pro-poor policies for expanding sanitation coverage have the ability to reduce population level health inequalities which can translate into reduced child diarrheal mortality. more….
GTZ Has published a set of technology reviews the last Quarter of 2009 dealing with “some
technologies commonly used as toilets or as treatment systems in ecosan systems.”
GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit translated- German Agency for Technical Cooperation) is federally owned and “…supports the German Government in achieving its development-policy objectives.” according to its about us web page Thier focus is sustainable development. Their is site is available in English and Deutsche de
The following comes from http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/wasser/9397.htm and the actual documents.
Technology Review 1: Urine diversion components
Technology Review 2: Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)
- Content includes:
- colored posters in one of the common languages of the country produced in, viewable on a stands size copy paper.
Technology Review 3: Composting toilets
Technology Review 4: Biogas sanitation
Technologie Review 5: Constructed wetlands
They, GTZ, suggests the site http://www.susana.org/lang-en/working-groups for in depth information. SuSanA (Sustainable Sanitation Alliance) has formed working groups for a range topics centered on sanitation. Their admirable and hopefully achievable goal is to “…provide deliverables that underline the problems and opportunities …” for these topics. The working groups break out as follows:
source source http://www.eawag.ch/organisation/abteilungen/sandec/publikationen/stun
The STUN project, operated in co-operation with UN-HABITAT Nepal, examines the feasibility of converting source-separated urine into a dry fertilizer product called ‘struvite’. Struvite (often called MAP for magnesium ammonium phosphate: MgNH4PO4.6H2O) is a safe, bioavailable fertilizer which can be precipitated from urine with only the addition of magnesium.
Working in the Kathmandu Valley, with the community of Siddhipur, the STUN project has assessed the social,
economic, and technical feasibility of producing struvite at the community level. By producing struvite from urine, we hope to promote improved sanitation, local food security, and nutrient independence as Nepal must import all of its fertilizer at prices which are not always affordable for subsistence farmers.
The following reports are available for download:
E Tilley, K Udert, B Etter, R Khadka, E John. (2009). Struvite Recovery in Kathamandu: A business model for increased food security
Fertilizer. (award winning poster from the Alliance for Global Sustainability 2009 Annual Meeting)
Etter, B. (2009). Process optimization of low-cost struvite recovery. Masters thesis submitted to EPFL.
Etter, B. (2009). Struvite recovery from urine at community scale in Nepal. Intermediate report. Eawag: Swiss Federal Insitute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (technical optimization)
Gantenbein, B. and Khadka, R. (2009). Struvite Recovery from Urine at Community Scale in Nepal: Final Project Report Phase 1. Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (social assessment)
Kashekya, E.J. (2009). Struvite production from source separated urine in Nepal: The reuse potential of the effluent. MSc Thesis MWI-SE 2009/01. UNESCO-IHE and Eawag, Delft, The Netherlands.
Tilley, E., Gantenbein, B., Khadka, R., Zurbrügg, C. and Udert, K.M. (2009). Social and economic feasibility of struvite recovery from uine at the community level in Nepal. In: International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams. K. Ashley, D. Mavinic and F. Koch (eds). IWA Publishing, London, pp 169-178.
For more information (in Switzerland) please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
For more information on:
Urine separation and reuse: