Paper: Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka – Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria
This study assesses the cholera incidence in urban slum in Lagos State, Nigeria with the emphasis on high risk of unimproved sources of water for domestic use and unsanitary environment. The study uses sets of one hundred and twenty structured guided questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on residents’ opinions and experiences on the risk and incidence of cholera in the area. Ten water samples were spatially collected from storage containers of the residents for microbial assessment Results of social survey instrument showed there was cholera incidence and the area is still at high risk as revealed from the result of coliform bacilli with high most probable number (MPN) count found in 6 of the 16 sampled water as well as the faecal coliform found virtually in all sampled water. The study concluded that increasing population of urban centres has been a major contributor to the unsanitary environmental, continuous use of unimproved sources of water as well as environmental health problems such as slum cholera risk and incidence. Therefore, for sustainable friendly and free diseases’ environment provision of habitable and conducive environment for the slum residents should be the priority of government.
A quick 90 second video about an effort to map sanitation in Rawalpindi Pakistan
Faisal Chohan, a Senior TED Fellow and TEDxIslamabad organizer, will now continue his mapping work with a related mission: Improving sanitation in order to prevent the spread of cholera—a bacterial infection in the small intestine, primarily caused by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by feces of an infected person. The rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance that results from cholera can lead to death if left untreated. Read more on TEDx….
- pakreport.org The Organization doing this and other work
- Saafpindi project Page for Mapping Project itself
- parkreport blog
- Fasil Chohan profile on wethedata.org
- Excelent source for more details by Faissal on GlobalGiving page
Other useful links
Scaling out Sanitation in Rawalpindi, Pakistan 2009 article by Pakistan Institute for Environment-Development Action Research (PIEDAR).
In the tradition of our TEDxYouthDay, TEDxChange, and TEDxWomen initiatives, comes TEDxCity2.0: A day of urban inspiration. 28 TEDx communities around the world participated in TEDxCity2.0 day on October 13, 2012. We will host our next event in 2013 to share the powerful narratives of urban innovators and organizers, stewards and artists, builders and tastemakers. The TEDx platform will harness the power of people across the globe to encourage them to host a TEDx event, themed “City 2.0. source & more…
In the march 12 2009 New England Journal of Medicine there was an excellent article on Cholera an easily treatable illness be ignored
source http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/360/11/1060 New England Journal of Medicine march 12 2009 Volume 360:1060-1063 number 11
Eric D. Mintz, M.D., and Richard L. Guerrant, M.D. authors
following excerpts from :
A Lion in Our Village — The Unconscionable Tragedy of Cholera in Africa
“Inexcusably, the completely preventable ancient scourge of cholera rages among poverty-stricken and displaced people today, with as many as one in five persons with severe illness dying for lack of safe drinking water and sanitation and a simple therapy consisting of salt, sugar, and water. Cholera, a dreaded waterborne disease of centuries past, remains a troubling barometer — and often a fatal consequence — of inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Epidemic cholera is the indicator of widespread contamination of drinking water with human feces. As such, it is the bellwether of many less dramatic but equally fatal or disabling diseases that flourish in filth and a litmus test of our willingness to tolerate flagrant violations of the human right to clean water and sanitation….”
“…Unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and other infectious-disease threats that have emerged recently, cholera is easily avoided and easily treated. The failure of the global community to mobilize the resources needed to prevent and to treat cholera among the less fortunate reflects our lack of commitment to equity and social justice. Improving access to safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, and basic health services are among the core Millennium Development Goals agreed to by all United Nations member states.
Epidemic cholera represents a fundamental failure of governance, and bold and visionary leadership is required if we are to attack its root causes. Such leadership has been demonstrated in other contexts in Africa. For example, President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda began to change public attitudes toward the human immunodeficiency virus and succeeded in reducing the rates of AIDS in his country, in part by recharacterizing the disease as similar to any other threat to the community: “When a lion comes into your village,” he said, “you must raise the alarm loudly.”…”
“…It is time to sound the alarm again. Whereas reported case fatality rates for cholera in the rest of the world are now well below 1%, rates in excess of 5% are still commonly reported in many African countries.1 According to United Nations agencies, the cumulative case fatality rate in the ongoing cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe remained stubbornly above 4.7% through February 12, 2009, by which point 5 months had elapsed since the epidemic began, and more than 73,000 cases and 3500 deaths had been reported…
[Article’s] Source Information
Dr. Mintz is leader of the Diarrheal Diseases Epidemiology Team, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Dr. Guerrant is the director of the Center for Global Health at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville.
Full article: http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/360/11/1060 New England Journal of Medicine march 12 2009 Volume 360:1060-1063 number 11
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- Ram PK, Choi M, Blum LS, Wamae AW, Mintz ED, Bartlett AV. Declines in case management of diarrhoea among children less than five years old. Bull World Health Organ 2008;86:E-F. [Medline]
- Roy SK, Hossain MJ, Khatun W, et al. Zinc supplementation in children with cholera in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;336:266-268. [Free Full Text]
- Guerrant RL, Oriá RB, Moore SR, Oriá MOB, Lima AAM. Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development. Nutr Rev 2008;66:487-505. [CrossRef][Web of Science][Medline]
- Lucas MES, Deen JL, von Seidlein L, et al. Effectiveness of mass oral cholera vaccination in Beira, Mozambique. N Engl J Med 2005;352:757-767. [Free Full Text]