Published on Nov 25, 2013
Catarina de Albuquerque, a leading human rights expert and the first United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to safe drinking water and sanitation, delivers the 2013 UNC Health and Human Rights Lecture, “Implementing Human Rights to Eliminate Inequalities in Water and Sanitation.”
DOWNLOAD THE PODCAST: https://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/…
The event is co-sponsored by the Center for Bioethics, the Department of Public Policy, the Water Institute at UNC and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases at UNC. It is part of the University’s campus-wide theme, ‘Water in Our World.’
There is a new paper from JOURNAL OF HEALTH DIPLOMACY that is worth of taking the time to read. Just the impact to combating Global Health issues associated with and tangential to WASH efforts is huge, not to mention many other areas of global health. This 21 page paper does a great job of addressing / itemizing the complexities of a problem, that laymen would think could be solved in a fortnight.
Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches
By Tim K. Mackey*
AbstractObjective. Counterfeit medicines are a global, multi-faceted, and complex public health problem. Global health diplomacy and cooperative efforts relying on governance systems have been limited in effectively addressing proliferation of this dangerous trade. Methods. This review conducts a comprehensive mapping exercise of governance efforts by international organizations to address counterfeit medicines, including analysis of related international treaties and conventions that may be applicable to anti-counterfeit efforts. This work also reviews governance and global health diplomacy proposals from the literature that addresses counterfeit medicines.Summary of Findings. A number of international organizations have become active inaddressing the global trade of counterfeit medicines. However, governance approaches by international organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Interpol and the World Customs Organization (WCO), have varied in scope and effectiveness. Treaty instruments with applicability to counterfeit medicines have also not been fully leveraged to combat this issue. Results indicate that a formalized and multi-stakeholder governance mechanism is needed to address the issue. The UNODC is uniquely situated to act as a forum for such a proposal in partnership with other international organizations.Implications of Findings. Global health diplomacy efforts to combat counterfeit medicines require multi-stakeholder and formalized governance structures that can leverage stakeholder participation and resources. Through cooperative arrangements leveraging the strengths of partners such as UNODC (combating transnational crime), Interpol (lawenforcement purposes), the WCO (customs and border control), and the WHO (for public health science and analysis), the international community can mobilize a coordinated, inclusionary, health diplomacy response to the crisis of global counterfeit medicines.
* Tim Mackey, MAS, is a Senior Research Associate with the Institute of Health Law Studies, California Western School of Law; a Ph.D. Candidate with the Joint Doctoral Program on Global Health, University of California San Diego-San Diego State University; an Investigator with the San Diego Center for Patient Safety, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; a Clinical Instructor (Health Services) with the Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; and the Coordinator for Global Health Research with the Joint Program on Health Policy, University of California, San Diego-California Western School of Law. He is a recipient of the 2012 Horowitz Foundation for Social Policy Grant for graduate researchers, the 2011-2012 Carl L. Alsberg, MD Fellow, Partnership for Safe Medicines and the Rita L. Atkinson Fellow, and gratefully acknowledges that support. E-mail: email@example.com
Citation: Mackey, T. (2013). Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches. Journal of Health Diplomacy. Published online June 13, 2013.
Editor: Rachel Irwin, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Managing Editor: Mark Pearcey, Carleton University
Published: June 13, 2013
Type: Review Article – Peer Reviewed
Journal of Health Diplomacy:
The Journal of Health Diplomacy (JHD) is an open-access, peer-review journal that publishes editorials, original research papers and commentaries on issues pertaining to the field of health diplomacy. In keeping with its objective – of generating and disseminating research to ensure foreign policy decisions and discourses on global health are informed by the best available evidence – issues are published twice annually on a thematic basis; themes are selected based on their timeliness and relevance to the field. JHD welcomes contributions from all academic disciplines, including anthropology, geography, history, international relations, legal studies, political science and sociology.
- Africa: 550 million counterfeit medicine seized in 10 days (custom-ised.com)
- The World Customs Organization (WCO) and the Institute of Research Against Counterfeit Medicines (IRACM) issue a new warning about the health and safety of African populations (nlipw.com)
- Firm hopes end to fake drugs is on Horizon (independent.ie)
Here are a half-a-dozen…well 3/4 of a dozen infographics on WATSAN/WASH/sanitation
There are more on our Pinterest WATSAN board
The Secretary-General today appointed His Royal Highness Prince El Hassan Bin Talal of Jordan as the new Chairman of his Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB).
In highlighting the challenges facing the international community in achieving the water and sanitation targets of the Millennium Development Goals, the Secretary-General stated that 2.5 billion people around the world still lack access to proper sanitation and 768 million do not have access to improved sources of water. Between now and the 2015 deadline, the international community, Governments and the private sector must accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goals water and sanitation targets. He further underlined that water and sanitation is likely to figure prominently in the discussions on the sustainable development goals.
The Secretary-General commended Prince El Hassan on his leadership in championing global causes and in supporting intercultural dialogue. Among other initiatives, he launched the International Cultures Foundation in 2002, the Partners in Humanity Dialogue in 2003, and the Parliament of Cultures in 2004. He has served as Chairman of the Policy Advisory Commission for the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) and as a Member of the Board of the South Centre. Water management is an issue of central importance to Jordan.
The Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation was established in 2004 to advise the Secretary-General and galvanize action by Governments and international organizations to advance the global water and sanitation agenda. The Board’s focus is helping to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets on water and sanitation.
Former Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto was designated Chairman of the Advisory Board in March 2004, and he was followed by Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, who became Chairman in December 2006. He remained Chairman until 30 April 2013, when he assumed his duties as King of the Netherlands. Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan serves as the Honorary President of the Advisory Board.
The Secretary-General is confident that the new Chairman and the Board members will continue vigorously to address the water and sanitation challenge and mobilize action, resources and political will to improve the lives of billions of people around the world.
In welcoming the new Chairman, he expressed his deep gratitude and appreciation for the skilled and untiring efforts of the former Chairman, His Majesty Willem-Alexander, hailing his commitment as a driving force in setting the water and sanitation challenges on the global agenda.
- UN: 2.4 billion people will lack improved sanitation in 2015 (washlink.wordpress.com)
- When Sanitation Does Not Have Clear Institutional Home or Accountability, Progress Lags: UN Deputy Secretary-General (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Is the world forgetting about sanitation? (one.org)
Sections of the Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
The UN report is out with Download PDF here with the Herculean title of
Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda
- Setting a New Course
- Remarkable Achievements Since 200
- Consulting People, Gaining Perspective
- The Panel’s Journey
- Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing World
- One World: One Sustainable Development Agenda
Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda
- Five Transformative Shifts
- Ensure More and Better Long-term Finance
Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact
- The Shape of the Post-2015 Agenda
- Risks to be Managed in a Single Agenda
- Learning the Lessons of MDG 8 (Global Partnership for Development)
- Illustrative Goals
- Addressing Cross-cutting Issues
- The Global Impact by 2030
Chapter 4: Implementation, Accountability and Building Consensus
- Implementing the post-2015 framework
- Unifying Global Goals with National Plans for Development
- Global Monitoring and Peer Review
- Stakeholders Partnering by Theme
- Holding Partners to Account
- Wanted: a New Data Revolution
- Working in Cooperation with Others
- Building Political Consensus
Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks
- Annex I Illustrative Goals and Targets
- Annex II Evidence of Impact and Explanation of Illustrative Goals
- Annex III Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology
- Annex IV Summary of Outreach Efforts
- Annex V Terms of Reference and List of Panel Members
- Annex VI High-level Panel Secretariat
Annex 1: While no one section should overshadow the others, The Illustrative Goals and Targets of Annex 1 is one of the ones that will be most debated (thus the safe adjective of “illustrative” ?)
It list “5 Transformative Shifts” required to move forward
We believe five transformative shifts can create the conditions – and build the momentum – to meet our ambitions.•Leave No One Behind.We must ensure that no person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied basic economic opportunities and human rights.•Put Sustainable Development at the Core.We must make a rapid shift to sustainable patterns of production and consumption, with developed countries in the lead. We must act now to slow the alarming pace of climate change and environmental degradation, which pose unprecedented threats to humanity.•Transform Economies for Jobs and Inclusive Growth.A profound economic transformation can end extreme poverty and promote sustainable development, improving livelihoods, by harnessing innovation, technology, and the potential of business. More diversified economies, with equal opportunities for all, can drive social inclusion, especially for young people, and foster respect for the environment.•Build Peace and Effective, Open and Accountable Institutions for All.Freedom from violence, conflict, and oppression is essential to human existence, and the foundation for building peaceful and prosperous societies. We are calling for a fundamental shift to recognize peace and good governance as a core element of wellbeing, not an optional extra.•Forge a New Global Partnership.A new spirit of solidarity, cooperation, and mutual accountability must underpin the post-2015 agenda. This new partnership should be built on our shared humanity, and based on mutual respect and mutual benefit.
1. End Poverty
1a. Bring the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day to zero and reduce by x% the share of people living below their country’s 2015 national poverty line
1b. Increase by x% the share of women and men, communities, and businesses with secure rights to land, property, and other assets
1c. Cover x% of people who are poor and vulnerable with social protection systems
1d. Build resilience and reduce deaths from natural disasters by x%
2. Empower Girls and Women and Achieve Gender Equality
2a. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women
2b. End child marriage
2c. Ensure equal right of women to own and inherit property, sign a contract, register a business and open a bank account
2d. Eliminate discrimination against women in political, economic, and public life
3. Provide Quality Education and Lifelong Learning
3a. Increase by x% the proportion of children able to access and complete pre-primary education
3b. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, completes primary education able to read, write and count well enough to meet minimum learning standards
3c. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, has access to lower secondary education and increase the proportion of adolescents who achieve recognized and measurable learning outcomes to x%
3d. Increase the number of young and adult women and men with the skills, including technical and vocational, needed for work by x%
4. Ensure Healthy Lives
4a. End preventable infant and under-5 deaths
4b. Increase by x% the proportion of children, adolescents, at-risk adults and older people that are fully vaccinated
4c. Decrease the maternal mortality ratio to no more than x per 100,000
4d. Ensure universal sexual and reproductive health and rights
4e. Reduce the burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases and priority non-communicable diseases
5. Ensure Food Security and Good Nutrition
5a. End hunger and protect the right of everyone to have access to sufficient, safe, affordable, and nutritious food
5b. Reduce stunting by x%, wasting by y%, and anemia by z% for all children under five
5c. Increase agricultural productivity by x%, with a focus on sustainably increasing smallholder yields and access to irrigation
5d. Adopt sustainable agricultural, ocean and freshwater fishery practices and rebuild designated fish stocks to sustainable levels
5e. Reduce postharvest loss and food waste by x%
6. Achieve Universal Access to Water and Sanitation
6a. Provide universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centers, and refugee camps
6b. End open defecation and ensure universal access to sanitation at school and work, and increase access to sanitation at home by x%
6c. Bring freshwater withdrawals in line with supply and increase water efficiency in agriculture by x%, industry by y% and urban areas by z%
6d. Recycle or treat all municipal and industrial wastewater prior to discharge
7. Secure Sustainable Energy
7a. Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
7b. Ensure universal access to modern energy services
7c. Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency in buildings, industry, agriculture and transport
7d. Phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption
8. Create Jobs, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Equitable Growth
8a. Increase the number of good and decent jobs and livelihoods by x
8b. Decrease the number of young people not in education, employment or training by x%
8c. Strengthen productive capacity by providing universal access to financial services and infrastructure such as transportation and ICT
8d. Increase new start-ups by x and value added from new products by y through creating an enabling business environment and boosting entrepreneurship
9. Manage Natural Resource Assets Sustainably
9a. Publish and use economic, social and environmental accounts in all governments and major companies
9b. Increase consideration of sustainability in x% of government procurements
9c. Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
9d. Reduce deforestation by x% and increase reforestation by y%
9e. Improve soil quality, reduce soil erosion by x tonnes and combat desertification
10. Ensure Good Governance and Effective Institutions
10a. Provide free and universal legal identity, such as birth registrations 1,2
10b. Ensure people enjoy freedom of speech, association, peaceful protest and access to independent media and information
10c. Increase public participation in political processes and civic engagement at all levels
10d. Guarantee the public’s right to information and access to government data
10e. Reduce bribery and corruption and ensure officials can be held accountable
11. Ensure Stable and Peaceful Societies
11a. Reduce violent deaths per 100,000 by x and eliminate all forms of violence against children
11b. Ensure justice institutions are accessible, independent, well-resourced and respect due-process rights
11c. Stem the external stressors that lead to conflict, including those related to organised crime
11d. Enhance the capacity, professionalism and accountability of the security forces, police and judiciary
12. Create a Global Enabling Environment and Catalyse Long-Term Finance
12a. Support an open, fair and development-friendly trading system, substantially reducing trade-distorting measures, including agricultural subsidies, while improving market access of developing country products
12b. Implement reforms to ensure stability of the global financial system and encourage stable, long-term private foreign investment
12c. Hold the increase in global average temperature below 20 C above pre-industrial levels, in line with international agreements
12d. Developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7% of gross national product (GNP) as official development assistance to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20% of GNP of developed countries to least developed countries; other countries should move toward voluntary targets for complementary financial assistance
12e Reduce illicit flows and tax evasion and increase stolen-asset recovery by $x
12f. Promote collaboration on and access to science, technology, innovation, and development data
Annex2: Over 20 pages are given to provide some substance to each of the 12 Illustrative goals above.
Annex 3: It focuses on the challenges of global targets (while titled Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology)
The mechanic of creating targets that are pragmatic rather than dogmantic, and address each countries social economic political profile will be daunting. Here are some excepts from the annex, but it should be read in its entirity.
Targets translate the ambition of goals into practical outcomes. They may be outcomes for people, like access to safe drinking water or justice, or outcomes for countries or communities, like reforestation or the registration of criminal complaints. Targets should always be measurable although some may require further technical work to develop reliable and rigorous indicators…
The target specifies the level of ambition of each country, by determining the speed with which a country pursues a goal. That speed can be a function of many things: the priorities of the country, its initial starting point, the technical and organizational possibilities for improvement, and the level of resources and number of partners that can be brought to bear on the problem.
We believe that a process of allowing countries to set their own targets, in a highly visible way, will create a “race to the top”, both internationally and within countries. Countries and sub-national regions should be applauded for setting ambitious targets and for promising to make large efforts. Likewise, if countries and sub-national regions are too conservative in their target setting, civil society and their peers can challenge them to move faster. Transparency and accountability are central to implementing a goals framework.
In some cases, there may be a case for having a global minimum standard for a target, where the international community commits itself to do everything possible to help a country reach a threshold level. That applies to the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030, for example. This could be extended in several other areas, including ending gender discrimination, education, health, food, water, energy, personal safety, and access to justice…
It is important to be clear that allowing countries to set the speed they want for each target is only one approach to the idea of national targets. The other suggestion considered by the Panel is to have a “menu”, whereby a set of internationally agreed targets are established, and then countries can select the ones most applicable to their particular circumstances. For example, one country might choose to focus on obesity and another on non- communicable disease when thinking about their priorities for health.
In the terminology used in this report, national targets refer only to the national differences in the speed with which targets are to be achieved. As an example, every country should set a target to increase the number of good or decent jobs and livelihoods by x but every country could determine what x should be based upon the specific circumstances of that country or locality. Then these can be aggregated up so that you can compare achievements in job creation across countries and over time…
- His Excellency Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of Indonesia, Co-Chair
- Her Excellency Ms. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia, Co-Chair
- The Right Honorable David Cameron,MP, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Co-Chair
- H.M. Queen Rania Al Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
- Gisela Alonso, Cuba
- Fulbert Amoussouga Gero, Benin
- Abhijit Banerjee,India
- Gunilla Carlsson, Sweden
- Patricia Espinosa, Mexico
- Maria Angela Holguin, Colombia
- Naoto Kan, Japan
- Tawakkol Karman, Yemen
- Sung-Hwan Kim, Republic of Korea
- Horst Köhler, Germany
- Graça Machel, Mozambique
- Betty Maina, Kenya
- Elvira Nabiullina, Russian Federation
- Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria
- Andris Piebalgs, Latvia
- Emilia Pires, Timor-Leste
- John Podesta, United States of America
- Paul Polman, Netherlands
- Jean-Michel Severino, France
- Izabella Teixeira, Brazil
- Kadir Topbas, Turkey
- Yingfan Wang, China
- Amina J. Mohammed, Ex-Officio member of the Panel
2.4 billion people will lack improved sanitation in 2015
World will miss MDG target
GENEVA/NEW YORK, 13 May 2013 – Some 2.4 billion people – one-third of the world’s population – will remain without access to improved sanitation in 2015, according to a joint WHO/UNICEF report issued today.
The report, entitled PRogress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water 2013 Update, warns that, at the current rate of progress, the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the proportion of the 1990 population without sanitation will be missed by eight per cent – or half a billion people.
While UNICEF and WHO announced last year that the MDG drinking water target had been met and surpassed by 2010, the challenge to improve sanitation and reach those in need has led to a consolidated call for action to accelerate progress.
“There is an urgent need to ensure all the necessary pieces are in place – political commitment, funding, leadership – so the world can accelerate progress and reach the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target,” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director for Public Health and Environment. “The world can turn around and transform the lives of millions that still do not have access to basic sanitation. The rewards would be immense for health, ending poverty at its source, and well-being.”
The report echoes the urgent call to action by United Nations Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson for the world community to combine efforts and end open defecation by 2025. With less than three years to go to reach the MDG deadline WHO and UNICEF call for a final push to meet the sanitation target.
“This is an emergency no less horrifying than a massive earthquake or tsunami,” said Sanjay Wijesekera, global head of UNICEF’s water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme. “Every day hundreds of children are dying; every day thousands of parents mourn their sons and daughters. We can and must act in the face of this colossal daily human tragedy.”
Among the key findings from the latest 2011 data, the report highlights:
- Almost two-thirds (64 per cent) of the world’s population had access to improved sanitation facilities, an increase of almost 1.9 billion people since 1990.
- Approximately 2.5 billion people lacked access to an improved sanitation facility. Of these, 761 million use public or shared sanitation facilities and 693 million use facilities that do not meet minimum standards of hygiene.
- In 2011, 1 billion people still defecated in the open. Ninety per cent of all open defecation takes place in rural areas.
- By the end of 2011, 89 per cent of the world population used an improved drinking-water source, and 55 per cent had a piped supply on premises. This left an estimated 768 million people without improved sources for drinking water, of whom 185 million relied on surface water for their daily needs.
- There continues to be a striking disparity between those living in rural areas and those who live in cities. Urban dwellers make up three-quarters of those with access to piped water supplies at home. Rural communities comprise 83 per cent of the global population without access to improved drinking- water source and 71 per cent of those living without sanitation.
Faster progress on sanitation is possible, the two organizations say. The report summarizes the shared vision of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector including academia, human rights and global monitoring communities for a post-2015 world where:
- No one should be defecating in the open
- Everyone should have safe water, sanitation and hygiene at home
- All schools and health centres should have water, sanitation and hygiene
- Water, sanitation and hygiene should be sustainable
- Inequalities in access should be eliminated
Download the entire report and get more information at:
About the JMP
The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring global progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) relating to access to drinking water and sanitation. The JMP data helps draw connections between access to clean water and private sanitation facility and quality of life.
The World Health Organization is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends. From its inception, WHO has recognized the importance of water and sanitation. Visit www.who.int for more information.
UNICEF works in more than 190 countries and territories to help children survive and thrive, from early childhood through adolescence. The world’s largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments.
Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS), now being supported by UNICEF in 50 countries around the world, including crucial ones in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, have led to more than 39,000 communities, with a total population of over 24 million people, being declared free of open defecation within the last five years.
For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: www.unicef.org.
For further information, please contact:
Rita Ann Wallace, Communications Officer, UNICEF New York,
Tel: + 1 212 326 7586 / Mobile: + 917 213 4034, firstname.lastname@example.org
Nada Osseiran, Communications Officer, WHO Geneva,
Tel: + 4122 791 4475 / Mobile: + 4179 445 1624, email@example.com
- When Sanitation Does Not Have Clear Institutional Home or Accountability, Progress Lags: UN Deputy Secretary-General (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Everyone needs a place to go (thehindu.com)
- Third World Problems (cameronkoizumi.wordpress.com)
- Global Health Plan Aims to End a Third of Childhood Deaths (ipsnews.net)
- Diarrhoea kills 10,000 under five children in Ghana annually – Minister (ghanabusinessnews.com)
- Post-2015 development agenda must reflect all dimensions of sustainability (guardian.co.uk)
When Sanitation Does Not Have Clear Institutional Home or Accountability, Progress Lags: UN Deputy Secretary-General
When Sanitation Does Not Have Clear Institutional Home or Accountability, Progress Lags, UN Deputy Secretary-General Tells High-level Panel
Following are UN Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson’s remarks, as prepared for delivery, at a high-level panel on investing in sanitation, in Washington, D.C., 19 April:
I am pleased to see so many familiar faces from last year’s Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting.
Last year we talked about commitments. Today I want to talk about action. But first let me ask a question recently directed to me by Kate Norgrove of Water Aid. Have you ever been caught short and wondered where to find a toilet? Probably a painful or embarrassing moment. Let us then remember that 2.5 billion people do not have toilets! This is their daily situation.
In New York, where I live, you will only find public toilets in Central Park. It is a problem common to most towns and cities.
Recently I was in Addis Ababa. I visited a small sanitation project called Feyenne in the town of Bishoftu, southeast of Addis. Feyenne, which is supported by UNICEF [United Nations Children’s Fund] and the Oromia Bureau of Youth and Sports, is run by three young men who used to live on the streets. In their small office was a chalk board with one word written on it. “Sustainability”.
Their approach to sustainability was to tackle the sanitation problem as a business. They had identified a need, and they had decided to fill it. The concept was simple — to provide a safe, clean public facility at low cost near the main market. With money from the toilet project, Feyenne has been able to open additional income generating activities that provide employment opportunities for vulnerable young people. It is a model that is needed — and replicable.
Sanitation is the Millennium Development Goal on which we have made least progress. Yet, it is among the most important. Success on sanitation has a direct bearing on the other Goals, and it will be central to the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. It is an issue of fundamental human dignity and the health of people and the environment. Out of the 2.5 billion people without sanitation, more than 1 billion people defecate in the open.
That is why, last month, I launched a call to action for sanitation on behalf of the United Nations Secretary-General. The objective is to galvanize major players to do more by building on two key ongoing initiatives — the United Nations General Assembly Sanitation Drive and the Sanitation and Water for All partnership. The Sanitation Drive calls on all Member States to intensify efforts and focuses on communication and advocacy. It is essential to get people to think about and openly discuss sanitation and open defecation. We need to break the taboos.
The other initiative, Sanitation and Water for All, has over 91 global partners. Last year I moderated the second Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting held here. More than 50 ministers attended and some 400 commitments were tabled. In June, we will have the results of these commitments, with a full report next year. Heads of State, members of Government and other actors need to know what has been achieved and what remains to be done.
We have already seen the results of some of these commitments. For example, in Ethiopia, the Government has endorsed a unified water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. And in Madagascar the Government has created a Directorate of Sanitation. Someone is made responsible.
That is one of the problems that has been holding back progress. Sanitation often does not have a clear institutional home or clear accountability. In 2014, UNICEF and the World Bank will convene the third Sanitation and Water for All High Level Meeting. I look forward to registering progress and new commitments.
There are three things we can do to speed up progress on sanitation. First, we can scale up the projects that work. Simple, affordable action has already proved its worth. Between 1990 and 2010, about 1.8 billion people gained access to sanitation — a significant achievement. Many countries have tackled this problem within a generation. They have shown that we can achieve our targets.
Second, we must speed up the elimination of open defecation — country by country, community by community, family by family. We need to ensure that everyone has access to a clean and safe toilet. We need to change attitudes and generate demand. We need to talk about the problem, not turn our heads.
And finally, we need to strengthen cooperation and boost investment. The cost of poor sanitation can be counted both in human lives and lost productivity. According to a study undertaken for the Water and Sanitation Programme and the World Bank, inadequate sanitation costs the Indian economy an estimated $53.8 billion a year, equivalent to 6.4 per cent of GDP [gross domestic product]. On the other hand, we know that every dollar spent on water and sanitation can bring a five-fold return. The economic benefits for developing countries are estimated at $260 billion a year.
The public sector has major stake to play. But, the private sector also has a major stake. There is a considerable market — millions of customers need an essential service. Opportunities abound for everyone from multinationals to local entrepreneurs. If we all do our part, we can achieve substantial results. So, let us commit now to provide adequate sanitation and safe water for all and stop open defecation — so that women and girls can live with dignity; so that our children can survive and communities can thrive.
Investing in sanitation is a win-win proposition — ensuring that millions of people can live productive lives, the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved and healthy societies can be built. There are only winners if we all mobilize. Nobody can do everything — but everybody can do something. Thank you.
video of his speech:“A Matter of Life: Investing in Sanitation – a Conversation with Jan Eliasson, Tony Lake, & Global Decision-Makers”
- Jan Eliasson: Everyone Needs a Place to Go (huffingtonpost.com)
- Pakistan pays heavily for poor sanitation, says UN (dawn.com)
- U.N.: Global lack of toilet, latrine access a “silent disaster” (cbsnews.com)
- New Sanitation Figures Compete with Official UN Statistics: 6 in 10 Lack Proper Facilities (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- UN seeks to end toilet ‘taboo’ (dawn.com)