The Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia report came out in June 2010.
The Study Starts of stating the fact that “Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2010 data indicate that around 38% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation services and that open defecation remains a widespread practice for over 60 million Indonesians. ”
With a majority of Indonesia being Muslims the study include a a look at Muslim teaching on the subject of sanitation. “The study objective was to identify the social, religious, cultural and gender-related factors which inﬂuence rural people’s attitudes towards urine and excreta-based fertilizers in general and the EcoSan urine diversion system in particular. It doe not pretend to be anything but a modest study: ” the study does not seek to be a comprehensive reﬂection of the whole of Indonesia. Instead, it provides a preliminary assessment of attitudes towards EcoSan, and identiﬁ es some key drivers and inhibitors…” It survey 350 people in 5 out of 33 provinces included Muslims, Christians and respondents with traditional
beliefs. Four producers and retailers of excreta and urine based fertilizer were also identiﬁ ed and interviewed.
One of the key finding come in this paragraph:
“The study data show that this is not only a Muslim religious objection,
but that Christians also consider it difﬁcult to keep the excreta dry by not
using water above the disposal hole. While the percentage of Muslims who
considered it difﬁcult to keep the disposal hole dry was fairly constant, the
percentage of Christians who felt this way varied from 35% in Kulon Progo,
Central Java to 78% in East Sumba. This conﬁrms the assumption that
use of water for cleansing, where available, is also an Indonesian cultural
behavior that inhibits the use of a toilet system requiring dry storage. ”
The study reports the researchers’ findings that more than “…80% of the respondents are willing to use urine or feces-based fertilizer.” The report goes on to say a similar number are willing to consume products from the fields using compost based fertilizer. The hard part, the study states, is only 50% of the people surveyed are will to to be involved in processing the urine and feces to make the compost. (I would like to know how this compares to other locations around the world 50% Seems high- a positive rather than negative – )
The study goes on to look at the roles/ potential roles men and women of a family unit have on
- selecting fertilizer for crops, and for selection installing,toilets for the family.
- selecting toilets installing them and composting waste from them.
The conclusions are complex. Hopefully organizations that want to just plop down ecosan units all anywhere in the will carefully read this short but informative report in its entirety. We must truly understand the people, if we / they are to have success with ecosan or any other viable alternative!
INTRODUCTION: ECOSAN IN INDONESIA
- Objective of the Study
- Consideration of EcoSan as a Sanitation Option
DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EXISTS ACROSS RELIGIONS AND REGIONS
- Excreta-based fertilizers are still a sensitive issue for some
RESERVATIONS ABOUT USING ECOSAN TOILETS
- Gender Differences
IS HUMAN EXCRETA-BASED FERTILIZER NAJIS?
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) “…a multi-donor partnership administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.”
The research was carried out by Entin Sriani Muslim assisted by Ana Nurhasanah in 2009. This learning
note was co-authored by Martin Albrecht, Isabel Blackett, and Ikabul Arianto and peer reviewed by
Eduardo Perez and Jeremy Colin.
Document type Pdf with search-able / selectable text. 4 pages Includes images and graphs
here is a great set of Ecosan /”ecological sanitation” posters published on slideshare
The proceedings from the DRY TOILET 2009 conference held by Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland are available They are a great resource and available at http://huussi.net/tapahtumat/DT2009/full.html
The Suomi version of the home page is http://www.huussi.net/
|1 PROMOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ORDER TO
Namibia, Finland, Tajikistan, Nepal, Uganda
|2 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY
||Philippines, India, Argentina, Belarus, Nigeria|
|3 IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN
|4a PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA|
|4b PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF
Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso,
| 5 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL
|6 GENDER ASPECTS
RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS
Bangladesh and others
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS continues
Ethiopia, Inner Mongolia, China
Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania,Kenya, India
|Side event SUSTAINABLE
SANITATION FOR TOURISM AND RECREATION
Republic of Karelia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland
This is a great introduction to use and building/design of an ecosan dry/composting toilet
To save lives, an Indian doctor rethinks the toilet
Sebastien Buffet Yahoo News 23 Aug 09;
STOCKHOLM (AFP) – By rethinking the humble toilet, Indian sanitation expert Bindeshwar Pathak has found a way that can save water — and lives — in developing countries.
For four decades, His Sulabh Sanitation Movement has equipped more than 1.2 million households with eco-friendly toilets and installed 7,500 public lavatories across India.
Yet almost three out of four Indians, or around 700 million people, still have no access to basic sanitation.
This leads to up to half a million deaths each year, Pathak, 66, told AFP at the World Water Week conference in Stockholm, where he was awarded this year’s Stockholm Water Prize for his groundbreaking work.
To lower the risk to human health, Pathak developed a twin-pit, pour-flush toilet known as the Sulabh, that uses a pair of tanks to store waste matter with no smell or soil pollution, pending recycling as fertiliser.
It uses significantly less water than a standard toilet, Pathak said.
“It requires only 1.0 to 1.5 liters to flush instead of 10 liters,” he said. “It saves trillions of litres of water each year.”
The idea is to discourage both open-air defecation and the use of bucket toilets — options that ramp up the risk of the spread of disease and diarrhoea.
“People have died of cholera cleaning the bucket toilets,” Pathak explained.
When a Sulabh is sold to households, its price is adjusted according to a family’s ability to pay. The poorest families pay 15 dollars (10 euros) whereas richer families can be asked to pay up to 1,000 dollars.
The Sulabh Sanitation Movement’s campaign to raise awareness of health issues has also seen more and more Indians prepared to pay user charges for its 7,500 public toilets.
Staffed 24 hours a day, they cost one dollar a month to use them by subscription — with an exemption for slum dwellers, women and children.
“For the whole month, you can go to the toilet, you can have a bath, you can drink water,” Pathak said.
The Sulabh has been exported to Afghanistan and Bhutan, and there are also plans to ship some to 15 other countries, most of them in Africa.
“I feel very happy because what we have been doing for the last 40 years, now it feels that we are going in the right direction,” Pathak told AFP.
As the winner of the Stockholm Water Prize, Pathak receives a cheque for 150,000 dollars (104,700 euros) in recognition of his work to conserve water and improve public health.