new paper: non-clinical interventions for preventable & treatable childhood diseases – what do we know?
new paper: by Maureen Seguin and Miguel Niño-Zarazúa
Munich Personal RePEc Archive
“What do we know about non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries?”
Preventable and treatable childhood diseases, notably acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are the first and second leading causes of death and morbidity among young children in developing countries. The fact that a large proportion of child deaths are caused by these diseases is symptomatic of dysfunctional policy strategies and health systems in the developing world. Though clinical interventions against such diseases have been thoroughly studied, non-clinical interventions have received much less attention. This paper contributes to the existing literature on child wellbeing in two important respects: first, it presents a theory of change-based typology that emerges from a systematic review conducted on non-clinical interventions against preventable and treatable childhood diseases. Second, it pays particular attention to policies that have been tested in a developing country context, and which focus on children as the primary target population. Overall, we find that improved water supply and quality, sanitation and hygiene, as well as the provision of medical equipment that detect symptoms of childhood diseases, along with training and education for medical workers, are effective policy instruments to tackle diarrhoeal diseases and acute respiratory infections in developing countries. more…
34 page pdf
Seguin, Maureen and Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel (2013): What do we know about non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries? Published in: WIDER Working Paper Series , Vol. 2013, No. 087 (13. September 2013)
WASHLink from time to time likes to briefly note newly publish papers in hopes of giving them a wider audience – let us know if you know of paper that could use this very small piece of publicity…
Here are a half-a-dozen…well 3/4 of a dozen infographics on WATSAN/WASH/sanitation
There are more on our Pinterest WATSAN board
Gender based violence
Recent high profile cases of women and girls being violently raped and killed in India, South Africa and elsewhere have made the ugliness of gender based violence more visible. Globally it is estimated that up to 70% of women will face gender based violence at some point in her lifetime depending on the country in which she lives.12 Gender based violence is a widespread and complex issue rooted in power differences and structural inequality between men and women, although men and boys can also suffer GBV. Experiences also vary by other social factors, including ethnicity, caste, age, sexual orientation, marital status, disability and other differentiations.3
Why is GBV important in the context of WASH?
So why are we looking at this issue from the perspective of the WASH professional? We are not GBV or protection professionals and already have large workloads and responding to the large number of people who still lack access to water and sanitation is a massive challenge.
The reality is that the risk of GBV can impact significantly on the access of women and girls and in some cases boys and men, to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene.4 In both urban and rural contexts, girls and women regularly face harassment when going to the toilet, and may delay drinking and eating in order to wait until nightfall to relieve themselves. Given the taboos around defecation and menstruation and the frequent lack of privacy, women and girls, may prefer to go to the toilet or use bathing units under the cover of darkness. [Full story/more…. ]
Site /Org background
The IDS project on Community-Led total Sanitation (CLTS), also known as the CLTS Knowledge Hub, aims to support the approach to go to scale with quality and in a sustainable manner, and to accelerate its spread in order to contribute to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men in rural areas of the developing world who currently suffer the consequences of inadequate or no sanitation. We seek to contribute to intensified momentum, expanded scale, and enhanced quality and sustainability of CLTS practice and thereby to increase access to and use of safe sanitation and hygienic behaviour.
All our activities aim to co-generate and co-create practical knowledge on CLTS and to make learning and innovations widely and quickly accessible. Through staying in touch and interacting with stakeholders on a regular basis, we try to keep up with what is happening with CLTS globally and are often able to make linkages between organisations and individuals interested and engaged in CLTS. We wish to encourage and support champions and add to the energy and momentum of CLTS. In order to raise awareness and commitment of practitioners and policy champions and support good practices and policies, the three main activities we engage in are:
- action learning, networking and dissemination,
- (co-)convening workshops for sharing and learning, and
- the CLTS website and bi-monthly e-newsletter.
IDS’s [Institute of Development Studies]work on CLTS, including the CLTS website (in its previous versions) were initially as part of the three year (2006-2009) DFID-funded research, action learning and networking project Going to Scale? The Potential of Community-led Total Sanitation . Until 31st December 2009, the action learning and networking aspect of this work continued as the project Sharing Lessons, Improving Practice: Maximising the potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation funded by Irish Aid From 1st January 2010 onwards, this work is being funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Community-Led total Sanitation (CLTS) pages:
- Gender Based Violence (kennizworld.wordpress.com)
- Ireland pledges KR8,900,000 for GBV fight (times.co.zm)
- Gender-based Violence in War times and Peace (halfofhumanity.wordpress.com)
- FROM AKIMBO | Standing Strong for a Woman’s Right to a Just and Healthy Life (womensphilanthropy.typepad.com)
From SuSanA web page:
- Capacity development for sustainable sanitation
- Financial and economic analysis
- Links between sanitation, climate change and renewable energies
- Sanitation systems and technology options
- Productive sanitation and the link to food security
- Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities
- Sustainable sanitation for schools
- Integrating a gender perspective in sustainable sanitation
- Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations
- Sanitation as a business
- Public awareness raising and sanitation marketing
- Operation and maintenance of sustainable sanitation systems
- Sustainable sanitation and groundwater protection
The document is available as a single 116 page pdf or two pdfs breaking the dock in half.
It is filled with hot links to a wealth of reference material. This alone will make the document invaluable. All urls are written out so links retain their value in a paper copy.
The list of contributors is is huge. A nice thing is the main authors provide hot email links at the end of each of the 13 sections so you can easily contact them.
The only problem with such a beautiful document is there is no traditional table of contents or index.
Executive summary from the pdf
“The target audience for this document includes a wide range of readers who are interested in aspects of sustainable sanitation and their links with other environmental and development topics. Possible readers include practitioners, programme managers, engineers, students, researchers, lecturers, journalists, local government staff members, policy makers and their advisers or entrepreneurs. The emphasis of this document is on developing countries and countries in transition.
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose, informal network of organisations such as NGOs, private companies, governmental and research institutions as well as multilateral organisations that aim to contribute towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by promoting sustainable sanitation.
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human excreta and domestic wastewater. Personal hygiene practices like hand washing with soap are also part of sanitation. Sanitation also includes solid waste management and drainage but these two aspects are not the focus of this publication. In order for a sanitation system to be sustainable, it has to be economically viable, socially acceptable, technically and institutionally appropriate, and protect the environment and natural resources.
SuSanA contributes to the policy dialogue towards sustainable sanitation through its resource materials and a lively debate amongst the members during meetings, in the working groups, bilaterally, through joint publications and via various communication tools like the open online discussion forum. This publication showcases the broad knowledge base and state of discussions on relevant topics of sustainable
sanitation. All of the working groups have published one or two factsheets providing a broad guidance relating to their specific thematic area.
The 11 working groups of SuSanA have the following titles:
WG 1 Capacity development
WG 2 Finance and economics
WG 3 Renewable energies and climate change
WG 4 Sanitation systems, technology, hygiene and health
WG 5 Food security and productive sanitation systems
WG 6 Sustainable sanitation for cities and planning
WG 7 Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)
WG 8 Emergency and reconstruction situations
WG 9 Sanitation as a business and public awareness
WG 10 Operation and maintenance
WG 11 Groundwater protection
Due to the inter-relationships between the working groups, the factsheets are inter-related and where appropriate, are cross-referenced. The factsheets relate to different parts of the “sanitation chain”, which consists of user interface, conveyance, collection/storage, treatment, reuse or disposal. We have attempted to visualise the linkages between the different working groups and the sanitation chain in the following schematic. There are some working groups which are dealing with overarching themes and these have been placed inthe centre of the schematic.”
- SuSanA – Compilation of 13 factsheets on key sustainable sanitation topics (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Humanitarian crises and sustainable sanitation: lessons from Eastern Chad (washafrica.wordpress.com)
- Time to Get Our Sh*t Together (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Sanitation at the 4th Africa Water Week, 14-18 May 2012, Cairo, Egypt (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
Science, Policy and Innovation
Bringing together academic research with policy, practice and networking events
The 2012 Water and Health Conference: Science, Policy and Innovation, jointly organized by the Institute for the Environment and the Water Institute at UNC, will consider drinking water supply, sanitation, hygiene and water resources in both the developing and developed worlds with a strong public health emphasis.
The 2012 Water and Health Conference: Science, Policy and Innovation is accompanied by several exciting events before and after the conference. Don’t miss the opportunity to network with and learn from the unique array of national and international professionals!
- Bai Mass Taal– Executive Secretary of the African Ministers Council on Water
- Tessie San Martin– CEO of Plan International USA
- William G. Ross– former North Carolina Secretary for the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources and Visiting Professor at the Nicholas Institute for the Environment
- Letitia Obeng – Chair of the Global Water Partnership
- Charles Fishman– author of The Big Thirst
- Tom Earnhardt – producer and host of Exploring North Carolina
2012 Main Conference Themes:
- Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainability
- Ecosystem Protection and Drinking Water Safety
- WaSH and Child Health
- Southeastern US Water Challenges
- Beyond 2015: Realizing Universal Access and Human Rights
- Water, Energy and Climate
- Making Sanitation Benefits Achievable and Sustainable for All
- Household-centered WaSH
Web cast interview with Epidemiologist Irene Shui,
Excerpts from the story:
“A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association examines the safety and effectiveness of another rotavirus vaccine now being used.”
“Other vaccines have since taken its place. But a manufacturer’s study of one of them, the RotaTeq vaccine, suggested it, too, might cause intestinal blockage after the first dose. Epidemiologist Irene Shui, at the Harvard School Of Public Health, decided to investigate. ”
““Because the rotavirus vaccine is given to almost every child in the United States, it’s crucial to monitor the vaccine’s safety,” said Shui.”
“Shui and other researchers examined the records of almost 800,000 babies who received this vaccine, including 300,000 first doses. They were looking for incidents of intussusception, the medical term for this kind of blockage. ”
“We did not find an elevated risk of intussusception following any dose of the vaccine, and especially following the first dose,” she said.”