Archive for the ‘Sanitation’ Category

Paper: Estimating child health equity potential of improved sanitation – Nepal

Tue, 24Sep2013 Comments off


Conceptual framework for using LiST to estimate the lives saved from WSS interventions  Acharya et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S25   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S25 Anjali Acharya,  Li Liu, Qingfeng Li and Ingrid K Friberg

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Estimating the child health equity potential of improved sanitation in Nepal



Access to improved sanitation plays an important role in child health through its impact on diarrheal mortality and malnutrition. Inequities in sanitation coverage translate into health inequities across socio-economic groups. This paper presents the differential impact on child mortality and diarrheal incidence of expanding sanitation coverage across wealth quintiles in Nepal.


We modeled three scale up coverage scenarios at the national level and at each of the 5 wealth quintiles for improved sanitation in Nepal in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): equal for all quintiles, realistically pro-poor and ambitiously pro-poor.


The results show that equal improvement in sanitation coverage can save a total of 226 lives (10.7% of expected diarrhea deaths), while a realistically pro-poor program can save 451 child lives (20.5%) and the ambitiously pro-poor program can save 542 lives (24.6%).


Pro-poor policies for expanding sanitation coverage have the ability to reduce population level health inequalities which can translate into reduced child diarrheal mortality.  more….


Sections of the Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

Sun, 02Jun2013 Comments off

The UN  report is out with Download  PDF here  with the Herculean title of

The Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
It’s 81 pages in pdf format that breaks out to the following sections:

Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda

  • Setting a New Course
    • Remarkable Achievements Since 200
    • Consulting People, Gaining Perspective
    • The Panel’s Journey
  • Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing World
  • One World: One Sustainable Development Agenda

Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda

  • Five Transformative Shifts
1. Leave No One Behind
2. Put Sustainable Development at the Core
3. Transform Economies for Jobs and Inclusive Growth
4. Build Peace and Effective, Open and Accountable Public Institutions
5. Forge a new Global Partnership
  • Ensure More and Better Long-term Finance

Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact

  • The Shape of the Post-2015 Agenda
    • Risks to be Managed in a Single Agenda
    • Learning the Lessons of MDG 8 (Global Partnership for Development)
  • Illustrative Goals
    • Addressing Cross-cutting Issues
  • The Global Impact by 2030

Chapter 4: Implementation, Accountability and Building Consensus

  • Implementing the post-2015 framework
    • Unifying Global Goals with National Plans for Development
    • Global Monitoring and Peer Review
    • Stakeholders Partnering by Theme
  • Holding Partners to Account
    • Wanted: a New Data Revolution
    • Working in Cooperation with Others
    • Building Political Consensus

Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks


  • Annex I Illustrative Goals and Targets
  • Annex II Evidence of Impact and Explanation of Illustrative Goals
  • Annex III Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology
  • Annex IV Summary of Outreach Efforts
  • Annex V Terms of Reference and List of Panel Members
  • Annex VI High-level Panel Secretariat

Annex 1: While no one section should overshadow the others, The Illustrative Goals and Targets of Annex 1 is one of the ones that will be   most debated  (thus the safe adjective of “illustrative” ?)

It list “5  Transformative Shifts” required to move forward 

We believe five transformative shifts can create the conditions – and build the momentum – to meet our ambitions.
•Leave No One Behind.
We must ensure that no person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied basic economic opportunities and human rights.
•Put Sustainable Development at the Core.
We must make a rapid shift to sustainable patterns of production and consumption, with developed countries in the lead. We must act now to slow the alarming pace of climate change and environmental degradation, which pose unprecedented threats to humanity.
•Transform Economies for Jobs and Inclusive Growth.
A profound economic transformation can end extreme poverty and promote sustainable development, improving livelihoods, by harnessing innovation, technology, and the potential of business. More diversified economies, with equal opportunities for all, can drive social inclusion, especially for young people, and foster respect for the environment.
•Build Peace and Effective, Open and Accountable Institutions for All.
Freedom from violence, conflict, and oppression is essential to human existence, and the foundation for building peaceful and prosperous societies. We are calling for a fundamental shift to recognize peace and good governance as a core element of wellbeing, not an optional extra.
•Forge a New Global Partnership.
A new spirit of solidarity, cooperation, and mutual accountability must underpin the post-2015 agenda. This new partnership should be built on our shared humanity, and based on mutual respect and mutual benefit.
 Annex 1, then has 12 targets under the subsection   UNIVERSAL GOAL, NATIONAL TARGETS:
(Where the percentages are graciously  left for others in working committees to arrive at.)

1. End Poverty

1a. Bring the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day to zero and reduce by x% the share of people living below their country’s 2015 national poverty line

1b. Increase by x% the share of women and men, communities, and businesses with secure rights to land, property, and other assets

1c. Cover x% of people who are poor and vulnerable with social protection systems

1d. Build resilience and reduce deaths from natural disasters by x%

2. Empower Girls and Women and Achieve Gender Equality

2a. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women

2b. End child marriage

2c. Ensure equal right of women to own and inherit property, sign a contract, register a business and open a bank account

2d. Eliminate discrimination against women in political, economic, and public life

3. Provide Quality Education and Lifelong Learning

3a. Increase by x% the proportion of children able to access and complete pre-primary education

3b. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, completes primary education able to read, write and count well enough to meet minimum learning standards

3c. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, has access to lower secondary education and increase the proportion of adolescents who achieve recognized and measurable learning outcomes to x%

3d. Increase the number of young and adult women and men with the skills, including technical and vocational, needed for work by x%

4. Ensure Healthy Lives

4a. End preventable infant and under-5 deaths

4b. Increase by x% the proportion of children, adolescents, at-risk adults and older people that are fully vaccinated

4c. Decrease the maternal mortality ratio to no more than x per 100,000

4d. Ensure universal sexual and reproductive health and rights

4e. Reduce the burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases and priority non-communicable diseases

5. Ensure Food Security and Good Nutrition

5a. End hunger and protect the right of everyone to have access to sufficient, safe, affordable, and nutritious food

5b. Reduce stunting by x%, wasting by y%, and anemia by z% for all children under five

5c. Increase agricultural productivity by x%, with a focus on sustainably increasing smallholder yields and access to irrigation

5d. Adopt sustainable agricultural, ocean and freshwater fishery practices and rebuild designated fish stocks to sustainable levels

5e. Reduce postharvest loss and food waste by x%

6. Achieve Universal Access to Water and Sanitation

6a. Provide universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centers, and refugee camps

6b. End open defecation and ensure universal access to sanitation at school and work, and increase access to sanitation at home by x%

6c. Bring freshwater withdrawals in line with supply and increase water efficiency in agriculture by x%, industry by y% and urban areas by z%

6d. Recycle or treat all municipal and industrial wastewater prior to discharge

7. Secure Sustainable Energy

7a. Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

7b. Ensure universal access to modern energy services

7c. Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency in buildings, industry, agriculture and transport

7d. Phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption

8. Create Jobs, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Equitable Growth

8a. Increase the number of good and decent jobs and livelihoods by x

8b. Decrease the number of young people not in education, employment or training by x%

8c. Strengthen productive capacity by providing universal access to financial services and infrastructure such as transportation and ICT

8d. Increase new start-ups by x and value added from new products by y through creating an enabling business environment and boosting entrepreneurship

9. Manage Natural Resource Assets Sustainably

9a. Publish and use economic, social and environmental accounts in all governments and major companies

9b. Increase consideration of sustainability in x% of government procurements

9c. Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity

9d. Reduce deforestation by x% and increase reforestation by y%

9e. Improve soil quality, reduce soil erosion by x tonnes and combat desertification

10. Ensure Good Governance and Effective Institutions

10a. Provide free and universal legal identity, such as birth registrations 1,2

10b. Ensure people enjoy freedom of speech, association, peaceful protest and access to independent media and information

10c. Increase public participation in political processes and civic engagement at all levels

10d. Guarantee the public’s right to information and access to government data

10e. Reduce bribery and corruption and ensure officials can be held accountable

11. Ensure Stable and Peaceful Societies

11a. Reduce violent deaths per 100,000 by x and eliminate all forms of violence against children

11b. Ensure justice institutions are accessible, independent, well-resourced and respect due-process rights

11c. Stem the external stressors that lead to conflict, including those related to organised crime

11d. Enhance the capacity, professionalism and accountability of the security forces, police and judiciary

12. Create a Global Enabling Environment and Catalyse Long-Term Finance

12a. Support an open, fair and development-friendly trading system, substantially reducing trade-distorting measures, including agricultural subsidies, while improving market access of developing country products

12b. Implement reforms to ensure stability of the global financial system and encourage stable, long-term private foreign investment

12c. Hold the increase in global average temperature below 20 C above pre-industrial levels, in line with international agreements

12d. Developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7% of gross national product (GNP) as official development assistance to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20% of GNP of developed countries to least developed countries; other countries should move toward voluntary targets for complementary financial assistance

12e Reduce illicit flows and tax evasion and increase stolen-asset recovery by $x
12f. Promote collaboration on and access to science, technology, innovation, and development data

Annex2: Over  20 pages are given  to provide some substance to each of  the 12 Illustrative goals above.

Annex 3:  It focuses on the challenges of  global targets (while titled Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology)

The mechanic of creating targets that are pragmatic rather than dogmantic, and address each countries social economic political profile will be daunting. Here  are some excepts from the annex, but it should be read in its entirity.

Targets translate the ambition of goals into practical outcomes. They may be outcomes for people, like access to safe drinking water or justice, or outcomes for countries or communities, like reforestation or the registration of criminal complaints. Targets should always be measurable although some may require further technical work to develop reliable and rigorous indicators…

The target specifies the level of ambition of each country, by determining the speed with which a country pursues a goal. That speed can be a function of many things: the priorities of the country, its initial starting point, the technical and organizational possibilities for improvement, and the level of resources and number of partners that can be brought to bear on the problem.

We believe that a process of allowing countries to set their own targets, in a highly visible way, will create a “race to the top”, both internationally and within countries. Countries and sub-national regions should be applauded for setting ambitious targets and for promising to make large efforts. Likewise, if countries and sub-national regions are too conservative in their target setting, civil society and their peers can challenge them to move faster. Transparency and accountability are central to implementing a goals framework.

In some cases, there may be a case for having a global minimum standard for a target, where the international community commits itself to do everything possible to help a country reach a threshold level. That applies to the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030, for example. This could be extended in several other areas, including ending gender discrimination, education, health, food, water, energy, personal safety, and access to justice…

It is important to be clear that allowing countries to set the speed they want for each target is only one approach to the idea of national targets. The other suggestion considered by the Panel is to have a “menu”, whereby a set of internationally agreed targets are established, and then countries can select the ones most applicable to their particular circumstances. For example, one country might choose to focus on obesity and another on non- communicable disease when thinking about their priorities for health.

In the terminology used in this report, national targets refer only to the national differences in the speed with which targets are to be achieved. As an example, every country should set a target to increase the number of good or decent jobs and livelihoods by x but every country could determine what x should be based upon the specific circumstances of that country or locality. Then these can be aggregated up so that you can compare achievements in job creation across countries and over time…


  1. His Excellency Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of Indonesia, Co-Chair
  2. Her Excellency Ms. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia, Co-Chair
  3. The Right Honorable David Cameron,MP,  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Co-Chair
  4. H.M. Queen Rania Al Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  5. Gisela Alonso, Cuba
  6. Fulbert Amoussouga Gero, Benin
  7. Abhijit Banerjee,India
  8. Gunilla Carlsson, Sweden
  9. Patricia Espinosa, Mexico
  10. Maria Angela Holguin, Colombia
  11. Naoto Kan, Japan
  12. Tawakkol Karman, Yemen
  13. Sung-Hwan Kim, Republic of Korea
  14. Horst Köhler, Germany
  15. Graça Machel, Mozambique
  16. Betty Maina, Kenya
  17. Elvira Nabiullina, Russian Federation
  18. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria
  19. Andris Piebalgs, Latvia
  20. Emilia Pires, Timor-Leste
  21. John Podesta, United States of America
  22. Paul Polman, Netherlands
  23. Jean-Michel Severino, France
  24. Izabella Teixeira, Brazil
  25. Kadir Topbas, Turkey
  26. Yingfan Wang, China
  27. Amina J. Mohammed, Ex-Officio member of the Panel

Waterless Urinals: A Resource Book

Thu, 21Feb2013 Comments off

This is a Wonderful 39 page  Technical document  on covering  all aspect  of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.

 waterless urinal

written by

  • Dr V M Chariar
  • S Ramesh Sakthivel

from forward

This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.

Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details

  1. Waterless Urinals
    1. 1.1  Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
    2. 1.2  Demerits of Conventional Urinals
  2. Functioning of Waterless Urinals
    1. 2.1  Sealant Liquid Traps
    2. 2.2  Membrane Traps
    3. 2.3  Biological Blocks
    4. 2.4  Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
    5. 2.5  Other Types of odour Traps
    6. 2.6  Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
  3. Innovative Urinal Designs
    1. 3.1  Public Urinal Kiosk 21
    2. 3.2  Green Waterless Urinal
    3. 3.3  Self Constructed Urinals
  4. Urine Diverting Toilets
  5. Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
    1. 5.1  Safe Application of Urine 3
    2. 5.2  Methods of Urine Application
  6. Other Applications of Urine
  7. Challenges and the Way Forward
  8. References and Further Reading
The book has a solid collection of tables and diagrams that support the text
  • Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
  • Average chemical composition of fresh urine
  • Recommended dose of urine for various crops
  • Waterless urinals for men
  • Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
  • Sealant liquid based odour trap
  • Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
  • Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
  • LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
  • Biological blocks
  • Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
  • Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
  • Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
  • Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
  • Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
  • Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
  • Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
  • Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
  • Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
  • Deep injection of urine using soil injector
  • Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
  • Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
  • Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
  • Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
Among many topics the Doc  weighs pros and cons of of traps to prevent odor and gases for escaping .Most of the solutions  have cost / maintenance barriers that limit feasibility to particular set of cases. India is a large county and need a variety of solutions as does the rest of the world.
We will  will  be interested to learn more about Zerodor
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.”    more on Zerodor
further notes from forward

Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.

In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.

Link to download  book & A deeper overview:

with excerpts can be found on the the India Water Portal site  more….

Prepared By

Stanford Nitrogen Group – Energy from Waste Nitrogen – Wastewater Treatment research

Mon, 28Jan2013 Comments off

 When looking at sanitation/wastewater treatment and making it economically feasible for more parts of the world, this is very interesting research.   Some will say it has roots in the fact that there is “gold”  in out crap…

Related links to this research:

Wastewater as a Clean Energy Source:

  …On May 1, a panel of judges awarded the $100,000 National University Clean Energy Business Challenge prize to the Stanford team for its project to convert nitrogen waste into nitrous oxide that is then used for clean power generation….

Paper: Nitrogen removal with energy recovery through N2O decomposition:

by Yaniv D. Scherson ,  George F. Wells ,  Sung-Geun Woo ,  Jangho Lee ,  Joonhong Park ,  Brian J. Cantwell and Craig S. Criddle

A new process for the removal of nitrogen from wastewater is introduced. The process involves three steps: (1) partial nitrification of NH4+ to NO2; (2) partial anoxic reduction of NO2 to N2O; and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy recovery by either catalytic decomposition to N2 and O2 or use of N2O to oxidize biogas CH4. Steps 1 and 3 have been previously established at full-scale. Accordingly, bench-scale experiments focused on step 2. Two strategies were evaluated and found to be effective: in the first, Fe(II) was used to abiotically reduce NO2 to N2O; in the second, COD stored as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was used as the electron donor for partial heterotrophic reduction of NO2 to N2O. ….

Researchers use rocket science for sustainable waste treatment process

Normally, we want to discourage these gases from forming,” said Craig Criddle, a professor of civil and environmental engineering and senior fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford. “But by encouraging the formation of nitrous oxide, we can remove harmful nitrogen from the water and simultaneously increase methane production for use as fuel.

Catarina de Albuquerque addresses stigmatization of groups who lack water and sanitation.

Sun, 14Oct2012 1 comment

UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation   Catarina de Albuquerque has called on states to address the issue of stigmatization of groups and communities because of lack to water and sanitation.

She presented a report to the UN Human Rights Council focusing on the links between stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation.

The 22 page PDF report “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque | Stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation

is available in  English French Spanish Arabic Chinese(Mandarin) Russian

Summary from Report:

“The Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation submits the present report in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 16/2. She focuses on the links between stigma and the human rights framework as it relates to water and sanitation. She has found that stigma, as a deeply entrenched social and cultural phenomenon, lies at the root of many human rights violations and results in entire population groups being disadvantaged and excluded.

The Special Rapporteur seeks to convey an understanding of stigma and to elucidate its drivers. She links stigma explicitly to water, sanitation and hygiene before examining different manifestations of stigma. She situates stigma in the human rights framework considering, in particular, human dignity, the human rights to water, sanitation, non-discrimination and equality, the prohibition of degrading treatment, and the right to privacy. Based on this analysis, the Special Rapporteur seeks to identify appropriate strategies for preventing and responding to stigma from a human rights perspective, before concluding with a set of recommendations. She emphasizes that States cannot fully realize the human rights to water and sanitation without addressing stigma as a root cause of discrimination and other human rights violations.”

  1.  Introduction
  2. Understanding stigma and its drivers
  3. Stigma and its links to water, sanitation and hygiene
  4. Manifestations of stigma
  5. Situating stigma in the human rights framework
  6. Identifying appropriate strategies for prevention and response
  7. Conclusions and recommendations

Strategies for prevention and response detailed in the report include

  • Participation and empowerment
  • Awareness-raising to break taboos and challenge stereotypes
  • Legislative, policy and institutional measures
  • Adopting targeted interventions
  • Adopting technical measures .
  • Ensuring access to justice

Keeping informed about WASH : Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter

Sat, 11Aug2012 2 comments

The “Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter ” from WHO is a  nice newsletter to subscribe to.  Its easy to skim but usually has a couple of great morsels of information with links that you will want to click through to.

If you would like to be added to their mailing list please email with the following:
To subscribe please include the text “subscribe WATERSANITATION” in the body of your email message.

Here is a sample of the latest newsletter. I can’t find a web page, it  appears to be only be accessible in a email

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter N° 158 / 10 August 2012

A Manual for Economic Assessment of Drinking-water Interventions
This manual describes a practical technique for appraising or evaluating small-scale interventions that seek to provide safer and more accessible drinking-water to rural people. It complements the WHO/IWA publication Valuing Water, Valuing Livelihoods.
* * *
Tracking national financing to sanitation and drinking-water: A UN-Water GLAAS Working Paper 
Just published, this full background document produced for the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-water reviews current experiences relating to tracking financial flows to WASH. It presents a methodological framework which provides a point of departure for global partners to develop and roll out an internationally agreed method. The full document is available here:
A first meeting to take forward this initiative will take place 27 August at Stockholm World Water Week. Details available at:
* * *
Register today for the 2012 Chapel Hill Water and Health Conference!
The 2012 Water and Health Conference: Science, Policy and Innovation, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, 29 October to 2 November, offers participants nearly 40 networking and workshop opportunities, and over 200 verbal and poster presentations around the following themes and more: Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainability, Ecosystem Protection and Drinking Water Safety, WaSH and Child Health, Beyond 2015: Realizing Universal Access and Human Rights, Household-centered WaSH.  Early bird registration rate through August 15 at:
* * *
Newly released WHO report indicates increase in cholera cases in 2011
A total of 58 countries from all continents reported a cumulative total of 589 854 cholera cases, representing an increase of 85% from 2010.  The greatest proportion of cases was reported from the island of Hispaniola and the African continent.  These trends reflect the need to shift from basic responsiveness to a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach that works with communities to improve access to safe drinking-water and sanitation, encourages behavioural change and promotes the targeted use of oral cholera vaccines where the disease is endemic. Access the report online at
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
The Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the dissemination of high-quality information on the science, policy and practice of drinking-water supply, sanitation and hygiene at local, national and international levels, published by IWA Publishing.
Click on the links below to view abstracts of some of the papers included in the latest issue of the journal:
Potential of community prepared wooden charcoal of Assam (India) for As(III) removal through batch and continuous column studies. Kamal Uddin Ahamad and Mohammad Jawed, 95–102 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.039
A conceptual framework to evaluate the outcomes and impacts of water safety plans.
Richard J. Gelting, Kristin Delea and Elizabeth Medlin, 103–111 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.079
Water resources management in central northern Namibia using empirically grounded modelling. M. Zimmermann, 112–123 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.090
Applying the Household-Centered Environmental Sanitation planning approach: a case study from Nepal. Mingma Gyalzen Sherpa, Christoph Lüthi and Thammarat Koottatep, 124–132 doi:10.2166/washdev.2012.021
– – – – –
For subscription information on the journal:
For a sample copy:
To register for Contents Alert:

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health Newsletter Details:

Please forward this email on to anyone who may be interested in its contents.


If you would like to be added to their mailing list please email with the following:
To subscribe please include the text “subscribe WATERSANITATION” in the body of your email message.  
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