Global Public Health Conference GPHCON at SRM University, Kattankulathur
– Call for papers
– Last Date: November 30, 2013
Pre Conference Workshop -Thursday 20th February 2014
Conference – 21-23 February, 2014
Organized by : School of Public Health ,SRM University
Supported by : Distinguished Members of Public Health Associations of India
School of Public Health, III Floor, Medical College Building
SRM University ,SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur
Tamil Nadu-603203, India, Tel- +91-44-27455771
Greetings from the Organizing Committee -GPHCON2014 It is our privilege to intimate you that School of Public Health SRM University will be organizing Global Public Health Conference in February 21-23, 2014 and the pre-conference workshop is on February 20, 2014. The theme of the conference is “Multi- disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: innovations, practices and Future Strategies” and about 25 sub themes focuses on multi-disciplinary approaches.
The aim of this conference is to bring the public health professionals from various disciplines to a single platform and share their technical expertise for the benefit of the people and the world. If you are working actively with public health systems or practicing public health at any level we invite you to share your rich experience in the conference. Your participation would add great value to the conference and you will certainly enjoy being among the renowned intellectual expertise.
The venue of the conference is SRM University, Near Chennai. SRM University is the first private University in India and has many glorious achievements to its credit. SRM launched the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT in the year 2012: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The crowning glory for the SRM University is in being the first private University in India to host the 98th Indian Science Congress that was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities” was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in the year 2010 which was attended by more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.
Keeping the legacy of organizing the large national and international conferences we School of Public Health, SRM University invite your august participation in the conference.
ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY SRM
University is one of the top ranking universities in India with over 20,000 students and 1,500 faculties, offering a wide range of undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in Engineering, Management, Medicine and Health Sciences, and Science and Humanities. SRM University with multiple institutions having been established 28 years ago is one of the largest private Universities in India. Over two and half decades, SRM University has set standards in experimental education and knowledge creation across various fields. Over 600 acres replete with a variety of facilities, State-of-the-art labs, libraries, Wi-Fi, Knowledge centre, 4500 capacity AC auditorium, 100 online smart classrooms and hostels with premium facilities.
SRM University is the first private university in India to launch the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The design is made robust enough support different payloads and act as Nano Bus for further mission. By this process SRM University would be able to provide qualified and trained scientist and technological manpower in satellite technology. Added to the crowning glory for the SRM University is that the 98th Indian Science Congress was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities”, was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister in which more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.
ABOUT THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Emerging as a School of Excellence in the 6 years of genesis, our staff brings experience in multiple disciplines and have hands on experience in local, national, and international health settings. Our capabilities in research, knowledge and practice have been tested time to time and proved successful..School of Public Health intercepts into many inter related disciplines, which have key elements in common that bring us together. School of Public Health, because of its unique standing is a powerful tool in bring about balance. The School works on “hubs and spokes” model linking many departments that include Medicine, Engineering, Nursing and Management in its manifold to function effectively. Postgraduate program in the School of Public Health is designed for graduates, who aspire to be leaders and professionals in public health, who aspire to reach high-level roles nationally and internationally. Our students come from all parts of India and a few International students from the Far East. They have relevant academic and work experience. Majority of our students have a prior health related degree, and we have students from various disciplines like Arts, Humanities and Engineering. We have Doctors and Public Health Officers nominated from various states and Union Territories.
This program prepares health professionals from a varied range of backgrounds, with knowledge and skills from a variety of disciplines, to define, critically assess and resolve public health and nutrition problems. Various fields of study allow students to focus on Indian public health issues and international public health, including nutrition and tropical health.
Theme “Multi-disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: Innovations, Practices and Future Strategies”
- Public Health Policy,
- Public Health Education,
- Pharmacovigilance in Public Health,
- AYUSH and Public Health, Community Health,
- Public Health Nursing, Public Health Engineering,
- Health Analytics, Public Health Ethics and Legalities,
- Veterinary Public Health, Occupational and Industrial Health,
- Public Health Promotion and Behaviour Change Communication,
- Migration Refugees and Urban Public Health, Public Health Nutrition,
- Hospitality Industry and Public Health, Economics of Public Health,
- Reproductive and Child Health Management in Public Health,
- Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Equity Issues in Public Health,
- Environmental Public Health, Public Health Research ,
- CSR in Public Health, Role of NGOs in Public Health,
- Medical Public Health, Public Health Dentistry,
- Information Technology and Public Health
- Disaster and Public Health
Authors who wish to submit abstract should follow the format for abstract submission that can be downloaded from the website. Abstracts should be written in English. Abstracts that are submitted must NOT have been previously presented in any other conference or published anywhere in any form.
Abstract should not exceed 300 words. It must be prepared in MS Word format. A 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1.5 line spacing should be used. Abstracts should be structured one with following sub-headings indicating in bold – Background; Objectives; Methods; Results; Conclusion. Always define abbreviations and acronyms including standard measures. Place special or unusual abbreviations in parentheses after the full word the first time it appears. Each abstract must be complete, i.e. it must include all information necessary for its comprehension and not refer to another text.
We encourage applying though online submission; however for the convenience the abstract can be emailed to email@example.com. The submitted abstract will be reviewed by the expert committee and the authors will be notified about the acceptance by Email. If accepted for presentation the selected authors are requested to submit the full paper.
o Deadline for abstract submission – November 30, 2013.
o Last date for submission of full paper – December 31, 2013
o After you complete your submission, you will receive an e-mail that confirms your submission was successfully received.
o Keep a copy of your abstract submission for your records.
Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Access to improved sanitation plays an important role in child health through its impact on diarrheal mortality and malnutrition. Inequities in sanitation coverage translate into health inequities across socio-economic groups. This paper presents the differential impact on child mortality and diarrheal incidence of expanding sanitation coverage across wealth quintiles in Nepal.
We modeled three scale up coverage scenarios at the national level and at each of the 5 wealth quintiles for improved sanitation in Nepal in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): equal for all quintiles, realistically pro-poor and ambitiously pro-poor.
The results show that equal improvement in sanitation coverage can save a total of 226 lives (10.7% of expected diarrhea deaths), while a realistically pro-poor program can save 451 child lives (20.5%) and the ambitiously pro-poor program can save 542 lives (24.6%).
Pro-poor policies for expanding sanitation coverage have the ability to reduce population level health inequalities which can translate into reduced child diarrheal mortality. more….
Reema Kumari(1), JV Singh(2)
1 Associate Professor,2 Prof. and Head Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow
njmsonline.org – National Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences [NJMS]
Introduction Diarrhoeal diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Inspite of many programmes and facilities provided by the government towards prevention of diarrhoeal diseases, it continues to be a threat.
Objective: To study the sanitation and hygiene practices followed by patients of diarrhoea admitted at Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional hospital based study conducted on 300 patients admitted at Infectious Diseases Hospital, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow. Patients were interviewed using a predesigned schedule after taking informed consent. Information regarding general characteristics including source of drinking water, sanitation practices, toilet facility available and mode of refuse disposable were taken. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results: Majority (50.67%) of patients’ uses Municipal water supply/tap water as main source of drinking water and 30% patients uses India mark II hand pump. Around two-third of diarrhoeal patient practices hand washing with soap and water after household activities. Majority (63.33%) do not practices safe methods of storing drinking water, 87.33% uses sanitary latrines while 12.6% still uses open field for defecation. Almost half of the patients uses dustbin for refuse disposal. Use of sanitary latrines and India mark II drinking water was positively associated with higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion: In spite of the improved facilities of water and sanitation provided by the government, there exists a lacuna between its availability and their proper utilisation. This leads on to the burden of diarrhoeal patients on the health sector. Proper awareness regarding safe drinking water and sanitation practices and proper refuse disposal can reduce the diarrhoeal load. view pdf…
WASHLink from time to time likes to briefly note newly publish papers in hopes of giving them a wider audience – let us know if you know of paper that could use this very small piece of publicity…
- new paper: non-clinical interventions for preventable & treatable childhood diseases – what do we know? (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Spurt in diarrhoea cases, Chennai Corpn. lax (thehindu.com)
There is a new paper from JOURNAL OF HEALTH DIPLOMACY that is worth of taking the time to read. Just the impact to combating Global Health issues associated with and tangential to WASH efforts is huge, not to mention many other areas of global health. This 21 page paper does a great job of addressing / itemizing the complexities of a problem, that laymen would think could be solved in a fortnight.
Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches
By Tim K. Mackey*
AbstractObjective. Counterfeit medicines are a global, multi-faceted, and complex public health problem. Global health diplomacy and cooperative efforts relying on governance systems have been limited in effectively addressing proliferation of this dangerous trade. Methods. This review conducts a comprehensive mapping exercise of governance efforts by international organizations to address counterfeit medicines, including analysis of related international treaties and conventions that may be applicable to anti-counterfeit efforts. This work also reviews governance and global health diplomacy proposals from the literature that addresses counterfeit medicines.Summary of Findings. A number of international organizations have become active inaddressing the global trade of counterfeit medicines. However, governance approaches by international organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Interpol and the World Customs Organization (WCO), have varied in scope and effectiveness. Treaty instruments with applicability to counterfeit medicines have also not been fully leveraged to combat this issue. Results indicate that a formalized and multi-stakeholder governance mechanism is needed to address the issue. The UNODC is uniquely situated to act as a forum for such a proposal in partnership with other international organizations.Implications of Findings. Global health diplomacy efforts to combat counterfeit medicines require multi-stakeholder and formalized governance structures that can leverage stakeholder participation and resources. Through cooperative arrangements leveraging the strengths of partners such as UNODC (combating transnational crime), Interpol (lawenforcement purposes), the WCO (customs and border control), and the WHO (for public health science and analysis), the international community can mobilize a coordinated, inclusionary, health diplomacy response to the crisis of global counterfeit medicines.
* Tim Mackey, MAS, is a Senior Research Associate with the Institute of Health Law Studies, California Western School of Law; a Ph.D. Candidate with the Joint Doctoral Program on Global Health, University of California San Diego-San Diego State University; an Investigator with the San Diego Center for Patient Safety, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; a Clinical Instructor (Health Services) with the Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; and the Coordinator for Global Health Research with the Joint Program on Health Policy, University of California, San Diego-California Western School of Law. He is a recipient of the 2012 Horowitz Foundation for Social Policy Grant for graduate researchers, the 2011-2012 Carl L. Alsberg, MD Fellow, Partnership for Safe Medicines and the Rita L. Atkinson Fellow, and gratefully acknowledges that support. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Citation: Mackey, T. (2013). Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches. Journal of Health Diplomacy. Published online June 13, 2013.
Editor: Rachel Irwin, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Managing Editor: Mark Pearcey, Carleton University
Published: June 13, 2013
Type: Review Article – Peer Reviewed
Journal of Health Diplomacy:
The Journal of Health Diplomacy (JHD) is an open-access, peer-review journal that publishes editorials, original research papers and commentaries on issues pertaining to the field of health diplomacy. In keeping with its objective – of generating and disseminating research to ensure foreign policy decisions and discourses on global health are informed by the best available evidence – issues are published twice annually on a thematic basis; themes are selected based on their timeliness and relevance to the field. JHD welcomes contributions from all academic disciplines, including anthropology, geography, history, international relations, legal studies, political science and sociology.
- Africa: 550 million counterfeit medicine seized in 10 days (custom-ised.com)
- The World Customs Organization (WCO) and the Institute of Research Against Counterfeit Medicines (IRACM) issue a new warning about the health and safety of African populations (nlipw.com)
- Firm hopes end to fake drugs is on Horizon (independent.ie)
Sections of the Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
The UN report is out with Download PDF here with the Herculean title of
Chapter 1: A Vision and Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda
- Setting a New Course
- Remarkable Achievements Since 200
- Consulting People, Gaining Perspective
- The Panel’s Journey
- Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing World
- One World: One Sustainable Development Agenda
Chapter 2: From Vision to Action—Priority Transformations for a post-2015 Agenda
- Five Transformative Shifts
- Ensure More and Better Long-term Finance
Chapter 3: Illustrative Goals and Global Impact
- The Shape of the Post-2015 Agenda
- Risks to be Managed in a Single Agenda
- Learning the Lessons of MDG 8 (Global Partnership for Development)
- Illustrative Goals
- Addressing Cross-cutting Issues
- The Global Impact by 2030
Chapter 4: Implementation, Accountability and Building Consensus
- Implementing the post-2015 framework
- Unifying Global Goals with National Plans for Development
- Global Monitoring and Peer Review
- Stakeholders Partnering by Theme
- Holding Partners to Account
- Wanted: a New Data Revolution
- Working in Cooperation with Others
- Building Political Consensus
Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks
- Annex I Illustrative Goals and Targets
- Annex II Evidence of Impact and Explanation of Illustrative Goals
- Annex III Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology
- Annex IV Summary of Outreach Efforts
- Annex V Terms of Reference and List of Panel Members
- Annex VI High-level Panel Secretariat
Annex 1: While no one section should overshadow the others, The Illustrative Goals and Targets of Annex 1 is one of the ones that will be most debated (thus the safe adjective of “illustrative” ?)
It list “5 Transformative Shifts” required to move forward
We believe five transformative shifts can create the conditions – and build the momentum – to meet our ambitions.•Leave No One Behind.We must ensure that no person – regardless of ethnicity, gender, geography, disability, race or other status – is denied basic economic opportunities and human rights.•Put Sustainable Development at the Core.We must make a rapid shift to sustainable patterns of production and consumption, with developed countries in the lead. We must act now to slow the alarming pace of climate change and environmental degradation, which pose unprecedented threats to humanity.•Transform Economies for Jobs and Inclusive Growth.A profound economic transformation can end extreme poverty and promote sustainable development, improving livelihoods, by harnessing innovation, technology, and the potential of business. More diversified economies, with equal opportunities for all, can drive social inclusion, especially for young people, and foster respect for the environment.•Build Peace and Effective, Open and Accountable Institutions for All.Freedom from violence, conflict, and oppression is essential to human existence, and the foundation for building peaceful and prosperous societies. We are calling for a fundamental shift to recognize peace and good governance as a core element of wellbeing, not an optional extra.•Forge a New Global Partnership.A new spirit of solidarity, cooperation, and mutual accountability must underpin the post-2015 agenda. This new partnership should be built on our shared humanity, and based on mutual respect and mutual benefit.
1. End Poverty
1a. Bring the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day to zero and reduce by x% the share of people living below their country’s 2015 national poverty line
1b. Increase by x% the share of women and men, communities, and businesses with secure rights to land, property, and other assets
1c. Cover x% of people who are poor and vulnerable with social protection systems
1d. Build resilience and reduce deaths from natural disasters by x%
2. Empower Girls and Women and Achieve Gender Equality
2a. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women
2b. End child marriage
2c. Ensure equal right of women to own and inherit property, sign a contract, register a business and open a bank account
2d. Eliminate discrimination against women in political, economic, and public life
3. Provide Quality Education and Lifelong Learning
3a. Increase by x% the proportion of children able to access and complete pre-primary education
3b. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, completes primary education able to read, write and count well enough to meet minimum learning standards
3c. Ensure every child, regardless of circumstance, has access to lower secondary education and increase the proportion of adolescents who achieve recognized and measurable learning outcomes to x%
3d. Increase the number of young and adult women and men with the skills, including technical and vocational, needed for work by x%
4. Ensure Healthy Lives
4a. End preventable infant and under-5 deaths
4b. Increase by x% the proportion of children, adolescents, at-risk adults and older people that are fully vaccinated
4c. Decrease the maternal mortality ratio to no more than x per 100,000
4d. Ensure universal sexual and reproductive health and rights
4e. Reduce the burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases and priority non-communicable diseases
5. Ensure Food Security and Good Nutrition
5a. End hunger and protect the right of everyone to have access to sufficient, safe, affordable, and nutritious food
5b. Reduce stunting by x%, wasting by y%, and anemia by z% for all children under five
5c. Increase agricultural productivity by x%, with a focus on sustainably increasing smallholder yields and access to irrigation
5d. Adopt sustainable agricultural, ocean and freshwater fishery practices and rebuild designated fish stocks to sustainable levels
5e. Reduce postharvest loss and food waste by x%
6. Achieve Universal Access to Water and Sanitation
6a. Provide universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centers, and refugee camps
6b. End open defecation and ensure universal access to sanitation at school and work, and increase access to sanitation at home by x%
6c. Bring freshwater withdrawals in line with supply and increase water efficiency in agriculture by x%, industry by y% and urban areas by z%
6d. Recycle or treat all municipal and industrial wastewater prior to discharge
7. Secure Sustainable Energy
7a. Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
7b. Ensure universal access to modern energy services
7c. Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency in buildings, industry, agriculture and transport
7d. Phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption
8. Create Jobs, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Equitable Growth
8a. Increase the number of good and decent jobs and livelihoods by x
8b. Decrease the number of young people not in education, employment or training by x%
8c. Strengthen productive capacity by providing universal access to financial services and infrastructure such as transportation and ICT
8d. Increase new start-ups by x and value added from new products by y through creating an enabling business environment and boosting entrepreneurship
9. Manage Natural Resource Assets Sustainably
9a. Publish and use economic, social and environmental accounts in all governments and major companies
9b. Increase consideration of sustainability in x% of government procurements
9c. Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
9d. Reduce deforestation by x% and increase reforestation by y%
9e. Improve soil quality, reduce soil erosion by x tonnes and combat desertification
10. Ensure Good Governance and Effective Institutions
10a. Provide free and universal legal identity, such as birth registrations 1,2
10b. Ensure people enjoy freedom of speech, association, peaceful protest and access to independent media and information
10c. Increase public participation in political processes and civic engagement at all levels
10d. Guarantee the public’s right to information and access to government data
10e. Reduce bribery and corruption and ensure officials can be held accountable
11. Ensure Stable and Peaceful Societies
11a. Reduce violent deaths per 100,000 by x and eliminate all forms of violence against children
11b. Ensure justice institutions are accessible, independent, well-resourced and respect due-process rights
11c. Stem the external stressors that lead to conflict, including those related to organised crime
11d. Enhance the capacity, professionalism and accountability of the security forces, police and judiciary
12. Create a Global Enabling Environment and Catalyse Long-Term Finance
12a. Support an open, fair and development-friendly trading system, substantially reducing trade-distorting measures, including agricultural subsidies, while improving market access of developing country products
12b. Implement reforms to ensure stability of the global financial system and encourage stable, long-term private foreign investment
12c. Hold the increase in global average temperature below 20 C above pre-industrial levels, in line with international agreements
12d. Developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7% of gross national product (GNP) as official development assistance to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20% of GNP of developed countries to least developed countries; other countries should move toward voluntary targets for complementary financial assistance
12e Reduce illicit flows and tax evasion and increase stolen-asset recovery by $x
12f. Promote collaboration on and access to science, technology, innovation, and development data
Annex2: Over 20 pages are given to provide some substance to each of the 12 Illustrative goals above.
Annex 3: It focuses on the challenges of global targets (while titled Goals, Targets and Indicators: Using a Common Terminology)
The mechanic of creating targets that are pragmatic rather than dogmantic, and address each countries social economic political profile will be daunting. Here are some excepts from the annex, but it should be read in its entirity.
Targets translate the ambition of goals into practical outcomes. They may be outcomes for people, like access to safe drinking water or justice, or outcomes for countries or communities, like reforestation or the registration of criminal complaints. Targets should always be measurable although some may require further technical work to develop reliable and rigorous indicators…
The target specifies the level of ambition of each country, by determining the speed with which a country pursues a goal. That speed can be a function of many things: the priorities of the country, its initial starting point, the technical and organizational possibilities for improvement, and the level of resources and number of partners that can be brought to bear on the problem.
We believe that a process of allowing countries to set their own targets, in a highly visible way, will create a “race to the top”, both internationally and within countries. Countries and sub-national regions should be applauded for setting ambitious targets and for promising to make large efforts. Likewise, if countries and sub-national regions are too conservative in their target setting, civil society and their peers can challenge them to move faster. Transparency and accountability are central to implementing a goals framework.
In some cases, there may be a case for having a global minimum standard for a target, where the international community commits itself to do everything possible to help a country reach a threshold level. That applies to the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030, for example. This could be extended in several other areas, including ending gender discrimination, education, health, food, water, energy, personal safety, and access to justice…
It is important to be clear that allowing countries to set the speed they want for each target is only one approach to the idea of national targets. The other suggestion considered by the Panel is to have a “menu”, whereby a set of internationally agreed targets are established, and then countries can select the ones most applicable to their particular circumstances. For example, one country might choose to focus on obesity and another on non- communicable disease when thinking about their priorities for health.
In the terminology used in this report, national targets refer only to the national differences in the speed with which targets are to be achieved. As an example, every country should set a target to increase the number of good or decent jobs and livelihoods by x but every country could determine what x should be based upon the specific circumstances of that country or locality. Then these can be aggregated up so that you can compare achievements in job creation across countries and over time…
- His Excellency Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of Indonesia, Co-Chair
- Her Excellency Ms. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia, Co-Chair
- The Right Honorable David Cameron,MP, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Co-Chair
- H.M. Queen Rania Al Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
- Gisela Alonso, Cuba
- Fulbert Amoussouga Gero, Benin
- Abhijit Banerjee,India
- Gunilla Carlsson, Sweden
- Patricia Espinosa, Mexico
- Maria Angela Holguin, Colombia
- Naoto Kan, Japan
- Tawakkol Karman, Yemen
- Sung-Hwan Kim, Republic of Korea
- Horst Köhler, Germany
- Graça Machel, Mozambique
- Betty Maina, Kenya
- Elvira Nabiullina, Russian Federation
- Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria
- Andris Piebalgs, Latvia
- Emilia Pires, Timor-Leste
- John Podesta, United States of America
- Paul Polman, Netherlands
- Jean-Michel Severino, France
- Izabella Teixeira, Brazil
- Kadir Topbas, Turkey
- Yingfan Wang, China
- Amina J. Mohammed, Ex-Officio member of the Panel
This is a Wonderful 39 page Technical document on covering all aspect of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.
- Dr V M Chariar
- S Ramesh Sakthivel
This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.
Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details
- Waterless Urinals
- 1.1 Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
- 1.2 Demerits of Conventional Urinals
- Functioning of Waterless Urinals
- 2.1 Sealant Liquid Traps
- 2.2 Membrane Traps
- 2.3 Biological Blocks
- 2.4 Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
- 2.5 Other Types of odour Traps
- 2.6 Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
- Innovative Urinal Designs
- 3.1 Public Urinal Kiosk 21
- 3.2 Green Waterless Urinal
- 3.3 Self Constructed Urinals
- Urine Diverting Toilets
- Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
- 5.1 Safe Application of Urine 3
- 5.2 Methods of Urine Application
- Other Applications of Urine
- Challenges and the Way Forward
- References and Further Reading
- Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
- Average chemical composition of fresh urine
- Recommended dose of urine for various crops
- Waterless urinals for men
- Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
- Sealant liquid based odour trap
- Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
- Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
- LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
- Biological blocks
- Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
- Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
- Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
- Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
- Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
- Deep injection of urine using soil injector
- Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
- Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
- Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
- Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.” more on Zerodor…
Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.
In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.
- UNICEF Report Highlights India’s Water Management Woes (circleofblue.org)
- SANITATION: Urban water woes (irinnews.org)
- From Water Problems to Water Solutions (slideshare.net)
- Lack of toilets, clean water costs world $260 bln a year – Liberian president (trust.org)