Hardback: $145.00 978-0-415-82818-5 December 24th 2013
“Based on the work of the WASHCost project run by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), this book provides an evaluation of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sectors in the context of developing countries and is the first systematic study of applying the life-cycle cost approach to assessing allocations. It presents unit cost estimates of the WASH sector across geographic locations and technologies, including rural and peri-urban areas, and these are compared with service levels. It analyses detailed data from more than 5000 households across nine agro-climatic zones in Andhra Pradesh State in India. Key issues assessed include poverty analysis of service levels, cost drivers and factors at the village and household level, and governance aspects such as transparency, accountability and value for money in relation to unit costs and service levels.
This is the most comprehensive study of the WASH sector in India and elsewhere that utilises the life-cycle cost approach, along with GIS, econometric modelling and qualitative research methods. Not only does it contribute to research and methodology in this area, but the analysis also provides valuable insights for planners, policy makers and bi-lateral donors. The authors show how the methodology can also be applied in other developing country contexts.”Contents
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
- WASH Sector in India: The Policy Context
- V. Kurian Baby and V. Ratna Reddy
- Life-Cycle Cost Approach: An Analytical Framework for WASH Sector
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
- Unit Costs and Service Levels: Region and Technology-wise
- V. Ratna Reddy, M. Venkataswamy and M. Snehalatha
- Explaining Inter-Village Variations in Drinking Water Provision: Factors Influencing Costs and Service Levels in Rural Andhra Pradesh
- V. Ratna Reddy
- Rural Sanitation and Hygiene: Economic and Institutional Aspects of Sustainable Services
- V. Ratna Reddy
- Nirmal Gram Puraskar and Sanitation Service Levels: Curse of Slippage
- M. Snehalatha, V. Anitha Raj, P. Bhushan and M. Venkataswamy
- Cost of Provision and Managing WASH Services in Peri-Urban Areas
- G. Alivelu, V. Ratna Reddy, P. Bhushan and V. Anitha Raj
- Skewed and Inequitable Access to Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services
- M.Snehalatha and James Batchelor
- How can Water Security be Improved in Water Scarce Areas of Rural India?
- Charles Batchelor, James Batchelor and M. Snehalatha
- Assessing Progress towards Sustainable Service Delivery in India: Lessons for Rural Water Supply
- A.J. James
- Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP): Understanding Governance in Rural WASH Sector
- M.V. Rama Chandrudu. Safa Fanaian and R. Subramanyam Naidu
- Decentralized Governance and Sustainable Service Delivery: A Case of Nenmeni Rural Water Supply Scheme, Kerala, India
- P.K. Kurian, V. Kurian Baby and Terry Thomas
- Provision of Sustainable WASH Services: Policy Options and Imperatives
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
In Message for World Toilet Day, Secretary-General Urges that Sanitation Be at Heart of Post-2015 Development Framework
Following is UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s message for World Toilet Day, observed on 19 November:
Each year, more than 800,000 children under five die needlessly from diarrhoea — more than one child a minute. Countless others fall seriously ill, with many suffering long-term health and developmental consequences. Poor sanitation and hygiene are the primary cause. Worldwide, some 2.5 billion people lack the benefits of adequate sanitation. More than 1 billion people practise open defecation. We must break the taboos and make sanitation for all a global development priority.
This first official observance by the United Nations of World Toilet Day is an opportunity to highlight this important topic. Sanitation is central to human and environmental health. It is essential for sustainable development, dignity and opportunity. Poor water and sanitation cost developing countries around $260 billion a year — 1.5 per cent of their gross domestic product (GDP). On the other hand, every dollar invested can bring a five-fold return by keeping people healthy and productive. When schools offer decent toilets, 11 per cent more girls attend. When women have access to a private latrine, they are less vulnerable to assault.
Despite the compelling moral and economic case for action on sanitation, progress has been too little and too slow. That is why I launched a Call to Action on Sanitation this year to end open defecation by 2025 and build on existing efforts, such as Sanitation and Water for All and the Sanitation Drive to 2015, the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
We are a long way from achieving the MDG target of reducing by half the proportion of people lacking adequate sanitation. We must urgently step up our efforts, with all actors working together for rapid, tangible results. And, as we look beyond 2015, it is essential that sanitation is placed at the heart of the post-2015 development framework. The solutions need not be expensive or technology driven. There are many successful models that can be replicated and scaled up. We must also work to educate at-risk communities and change cultural perceptions and long-standing practices that have no place in our modern world.
By working together — and by having an open and frank discussion on the importance of toilets and sanitation — we can improve the health and well-being of one third of the human family. That is the goal of World Toilet Day.
Learn more at the World Toilet Day Site:
World Toilet Day is observed annually on 19 November. This international day of action aims to break the taboo around toilets and draw attention to the global sanitation challenge.
Can you imagine not having a toilet? Can you imagine not having privacy when you need to relieve yourself? Although unthinkable for those living in wealthy parts of the world, this is a harsh reality for many – in fact, one in three people on this globe, does not have access to a toilet! Have you ever thought about the true meaning of dignity?
World Toilet Day was created to pose exactly these kind of questions and to raise global awareness of the daily struggle for proper sanitation that a staggering 2.5 billion people face. World Toilet Day brings together different groups, such as media, the private sector, development organisations and civil society in a global movement to advocate for safe toilets. Since its inception in 2001, World Toilet Day has become an important platform to demand action from governments and to reach out to wider audiences by showing that toilets can be fun and sexy as well as vital to life. more…
- Sanergy from Nairobi wins first Sarphati Sanitation Award (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Bollywood celeb advocates hand washing at the United Nations General Assembly (mydoorsign.com)
- Paving the way toward the MDGs and beyond (devex.com)
- UN Assembly Ramps-up Pressure on MDGs, Clarifies Post-2015 Goals (ictsd.org)
- Out in the open (thehindu.com)
Global Public Health Conference GPHCON at SRM University, Kattankulathur
- Call for papers
- Last Date: November 30, 2013
Pre Conference Workshop -Thursday 20th February 2014
Conference – 21-23 February, 2014
Organized by : School of Public Health ,SRM University
Supported by : Distinguished Members of Public Health Associations of India
School of Public Health, III Floor, Medical College Building
SRM University ,SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur
Tamil Nadu-603203, India, Tel- +91-44-27455771
Greetings from the Organizing Committee -GPHCON2014 It is our privilege to intimate you that School of Public Health SRM University will be organizing Global Public Health Conference in February 21-23, 2014 and the pre-conference workshop is on February 20, 2014. The theme of the conference is “Multi- disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: innovations, practices and Future Strategies” and about 25 sub themes focuses on multi-disciplinary approaches.
The aim of this conference is to bring the public health professionals from various disciplines to a single platform and share their technical expertise for the benefit of the people and the world. If you are working actively with public health systems or practicing public health at any level we invite you to share your rich experience in the conference. Your participation would add great value to the conference and you will certainly enjoy being among the renowned intellectual expertise.
The venue of the conference is SRM University, Near Chennai. SRM University is the first private University in India and has many glorious achievements to its credit. SRM launched the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT in the year 2012: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The crowning glory for the SRM University is in being the first private University in India to host the 98th Indian Science Congress that was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities” was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in the year 2010 which was attended by more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.
Keeping the legacy of organizing the large national and international conferences we School of Public Health, SRM University invite your august participation in the conference.
ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY SRM
University is one of the top ranking universities in India with over 20,000 students and 1,500 faculties, offering a wide range of undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in Engineering, Management, Medicine and Health Sciences, and Science and Humanities. SRM University with multiple institutions having been established 28 years ago is one of the largest private Universities in India. Over two and half decades, SRM University has set standards in experimental education and knowledge creation across various fields. Over 600 acres replete with a variety of facilities, State-of-the-art labs, libraries, Wi-Fi, Knowledge centre, 4500 capacity AC auditorium, 100 online smart classrooms and hostels with premium facilities.
SRM University is the first private university in India to launch the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The design is made robust enough support different payloads and act as Nano Bus for further mission. By this process SRM University would be able to provide qualified and trained scientist and technological manpower in satellite technology. Added to the crowning glory for the SRM University is that the 98th Indian Science Congress was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities”, was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister in which more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.
ABOUT THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Emerging as a School of Excellence in the 6 years of genesis, our staff brings experience in multiple disciplines and have hands on experience in local, national, and international health settings. Our capabilities in research, knowledge and practice have been tested time to time and proved successful..School of Public Health intercepts into many inter related disciplines, which have key elements in common that bring us together. School of Public Health, because of its unique standing is a powerful tool in bring about balance. The School works on “hubs and spokes” model linking many departments that include Medicine, Engineering, Nursing and Management in its manifold to function effectively. Postgraduate program in the School of Public Health is designed for graduates, who aspire to be leaders and professionals in public health, who aspire to reach high-level roles nationally and internationally. Our students come from all parts of India and a few International students from the Far East. They have relevant academic and work experience. Majority of our students have a prior health related degree, and we have students from various disciplines like Arts, Humanities and Engineering. We have Doctors and Public Health Officers nominated from various states and Union Territories.
This program prepares health professionals from a varied range of backgrounds, with knowledge and skills from a variety of disciplines, to define, critically assess and resolve public health and nutrition problems. Various fields of study allow students to focus on Indian public health issues and international public health, including nutrition and tropical health.
Theme “Multi-disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: Innovations, Practices and Future Strategies”
- Public Health Policy,
- Public Health Education,
- Pharmacovigilance in Public Health,
- AYUSH and Public Health, Community Health,
- Public Health Nursing, Public Health Engineering,
- Health Analytics, Public Health Ethics and Legalities,
- Veterinary Public Health, Occupational and Industrial Health,
- Public Health Promotion and Behaviour Change Communication,
- Migration Refugees and Urban Public Health, Public Health Nutrition,
- Hospitality Industry and Public Health, Economics of Public Health,
- Reproductive and Child Health Management in Public Health,
- Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Equity Issues in Public Health,
- Environmental Public Health, Public Health Research ,
- CSR in Public Health, Role of NGOs in Public Health,
- Medical Public Health, Public Health Dentistry,
- Information Technology and Public Health
- Disaster and Public Health
Authors who wish to submit abstract should follow the format for abstract submission that can be downloaded from the website. Abstracts should be written in English. Abstracts that are submitted must NOT have been previously presented in any other conference or published anywhere in any form.
Abstract should not exceed 300 words. It must be prepared in MS Word format. A 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1.5 line spacing should be used. Abstracts should be structured one with following sub-headings indicating in bold – Background; Objectives; Methods; Results; Conclusion. Always define abbreviations and acronyms including standard measures. Place special or unusual abbreviations in parentheses after the full word the first time it appears. Each abstract must be complete, i.e. it must include all information necessary for its comprehension and not refer to another text.
We encourage applying though online submission; however for the convenience the abstract can be emailed to email@example.com. The submitted abstract will be reviewed by the expert committee and the authors will be notified about the acceptance by Email. If accepted for presentation the selected authors are requested to submit the full paper.
o Deadline for abstract submission – November 30, 2013.
o Last date for submission of full paper – December 31, 2013
o After you complete your submission, you will receive an e-mail that confirms your submission was successfully received.
o Keep a copy of your abstract submission for your records.
Reema Kumari(1), JV Singh(2)
1 Associate Professor,2 Prof. and Head Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow
njmsonline.org – National Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences [NJMS]
Introduction Diarrhoeal diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Inspite of many programmes and facilities provided by the government towards prevention of diarrhoeal diseases, it continues to be a threat.
Objective: To study the sanitation and hygiene practices followed by patients of diarrhoea admitted at Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional hospital based study conducted on 300 patients admitted at Infectious Diseases Hospital, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow. Patients were interviewed using a predesigned schedule after taking informed consent. Information regarding general characteristics including source of drinking water, sanitation practices, toilet facility available and mode of refuse disposable were taken. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results: Majority (50.67%) of patients’ uses Municipal water supply/tap water as main source of drinking water and 30% patients uses India mark II hand pump. Around two-third of diarrhoeal patient practices hand washing with soap and water after household activities. Majority (63.33%) do not practices safe methods of storing drinking water, 87.33% uses sanitary latrines while 12.6% still uses open field for defecation. Almost half of the patients uses dustbin for refuse disposal. Use of sanitary latrines and India mark II drinking water was positively associated with higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion: In spite of the improved facilities of water and sanitation provided by the government, there exists a lacuna between its availability and their proper utilisation. This leads on to the burden of diarrhoeal patients on the health sector. Proper awareness regarding safe drinking water and sanitation practices and proper refuse disposal can reduce the diarrhoeal load. view pdf…
WASHLink from time to time likes to briefly note newly publish papers in hopes of giving them a wider audience – let us know if you know of paper that could use this very small piece of publicity…
- new paper: non-clinical interventions for preventable & treatable childhood diseases – what do we know? (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Spurt in diarrhoea cases, Chennai Corpn. lax (thehindu.com)
After working for more than 20 years as an electrical engineer with different business houses, Suprio realized that life could be more meaningful and interesting than this scramble up the corporate ladder. He gave up his job …
His latest project Zimba the automatic chlorine doser, was selected by researchers of Stanford University and icddr-b for trials in the slums of Dhaka. These dosers are in operation since February 2012 and are currently serving around 50 families. A single device is also under pilot trial with Spring Health (a Paul Polak initiative) in Orissa…. more…
Related posts / information
- Zimba Water site
- Four low-cost devices that chlorinate water at the source - Engineering for Change
- ZimbaPlus | MIT IDEAS Global Challenge
- Zimba Water (ZimbaWater) on Twitter
- Another Video on subject by Suprio Das – on Vimo
- After Lighting Rural Houses from Rickshaws, Invention by Suprio Das Reaches MIT $100K Semifinals - NextBigWhat
Cynthia talks about the often underestimated problem of water weight and how this problem is preventing millions of women from educating and empowering themselves. She points about the fact that ‘water is heavy’ using real life examples in Rajasnthan, India. Not only is water heavy but also time consuming and limiting women of important opportunities. She talks about her invention “wello” where she & her team have reinvented the wheel. She brings the water wheel on stage, explaining the design and features in this product, allowing the audience to see this easy to use, yet immensely life changing water wheel.
Cynthia’s Profile on UnreasonableNetwork -(really, a good site)
Other drums solutions
- Wello’s WaterWheel – Rolling Towards Healthier Communities (learningaboutsocialenterprise.wordpress.com)
- Social Entrepreneurs That Innovate Around Women And Clean Water (siliconvalleywatcher.com)
- Q-Drum re-invents the wheel by adding water to solve a water transport crisis for the world’s poor.
This is a Wonderful 39 page Technical document on covering all aspect of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.
- Dr V M Chariar
- S Ramesh Sakthivel
This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.
Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details
- Waterless Urinals
- 1.1 Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
- 1.2 Demerits of Conventional Urinals
- Functioning of Waterless Urinals
- 2.1 Sealant Liquid Traps
- 2.2 Membrane Traps
- 2.3 Biological Blocks
- 2.4 Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
- 2.5 Other Types of odour Traps
- 2.6 Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
- Innovative Urinal Designs
- 3.1 Public Urinal Kiosk 21
- 3.2 Green Waterless Urinal
- 3.3 Self Constructed Urinals
- Urine Diverting Toilets
- Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
- 5.1 Safe Application of Urine 3
- 5.2 Methods of Urine Application
- Other Applications of Urine
- Challenges and the Way Forward
- References and Further Reading
- Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
- Average chemical composition of fresh urine
- Recommended dose of urine for various crops
- Waterless urinals for men
- Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
- Sealant liquid based odour trap
- Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
- Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
- LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
- Biological blocks
- Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
- Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
- Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
- Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
- Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
- Deep injection of urine using soil injector
- Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
- Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
- Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
- Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.” more on Zerodor…
Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.
In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.
- UNICEF Report Highlights India’s Water Management Woes (circleofblue.org)
- SANITATION: Urban water woes (irinnews.org)
- From Water Problems to Water Solutions (slideshare.net)
- Lack of toilets, clean water costs world $260 bln a year – Liberian president (trust.org)