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President Obama signs into law H.R. 2901, the “Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2014,”

Sat, 27Dec2014 Comments off

sources: https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/2901 and http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/12/19/statement-press-secretary-statement-press-secretary-hr-1068-hr-2754-hr-2AT THE SECOND SESSIONBegun and held at the City of Washington on Friday,
the third day of January, two thousand and fourteen

To strengthen implementation of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 by improving the capacity of the United States Government to implement, leverage, and monitor and evaluate programs to provide first-time or improved access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene to the world’s poorest on an equitable and sustainable basis, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the “Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2014”.

SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) water and sanitation are critically important resources that impact many other aspects of human life; and

(2) the United States should be a global leader in helping provide sustainable access to clean water and sanitation for the world’s most vulnerable populations.

SEC. 3. CLARIFICATION OF ASSISTANCE TO PROVIDE SAFE WATER AND SANITATION TO INCLUDE HYGIENE.

Chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 is amended—

(1) by redesignating section 135 (22 U.S.C. 2152h), as added by section 5(a) of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–121; 22 U.S.C. 2152h note), as section 136; and

(2) in section 136, as redesignated—

(A) in the section heading, by striking “AND SANITATION” and inserting “, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE”; and

(B) in subsection (b), by striking “and sanitation” and inserting “, sanitation, and hygiene”.

SEC. 4. IMPROVING COORDINATION AND OVERSIGHT OF SAFE WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES.

Section 136 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as redesignated and amended by this Act, is further amended by adding at the end the following:

“(e) Coordination And Oversight.—

“(1) USAID GLOBAL WATER COORDINATOR.—

“(A) DESIGNATION.—The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (referred to in this paragraph as ‘USAID’) or the Administrator’s designee, who shall be a current USAID employee serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Administrator or higher, shall serve concurrently as the USAID Global Water Coordinator (referred to in this subsection as the ‘Coordinator’).

“(B) SPECIFIC DUTIES.—The Coordinator shall—

“(i) provide direction and guidance to, coordinate, and oversee the projects and programs of USAID authorized under this section;

“(ii) lead the implementation and revision, not less frequently than once every 5 years, of USAID’s portion of the Global Water Strategy required under subsection (j);

“(iii) seek—

“(I) to expand the capacity of USAID, subject to the availability of appropriations, including through the designation of a lead subject matter expert selected from among USAID staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h);

“(II) to implement such programs and activities;

“(III) to take advantage of economies of scale; and

“(IV) to conduct more efficient and effective projects and programs;

“(iv) coordinate with the Department of State and USAID staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h) to ensure that USAID activities and projects, USAID program planning and budgeting documents, and USAID country development strategies reflect and seek to implement—

“(I) the safe water, sanitation, and hygiene objectives established in the strategy required under subsection (j), including objectives relating to the management of water resources; and

“(II) international best practices relating to—

“(aa) increasing access to safe water and sanitation;

“(bb) conducting hygiene-related activities; and

“(cc) ensuring appropriate management of water resources; and

“(v) develop appropriate benchmarks, measurable goals, performance metrics, and monitoring and evaluation plans for USAID projects and programs authorized under this section.

“(2) DEPARTMENT OF STATE SPECIAL COORDINATOR FOR WATER RESOURCES.—

“(A) DESIGNATION.—The Secretary of State or the Secretary’s designee, who shall be a current employee of the Department of State serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Secretary or higher, shall serve concurrently as the Department of State Special Advisor for Water Resources (referred to in this paragraph as the ‘Special Advisor’).

“(B) SPECIFIC DUTIES.—The Special Advisor shall—

“(i) provide direction and guidance to, coordinate, and oversee the projects and programs of the Department of State authorized under this section;

“(ii) lead the implementation and revision, not less than every 5 years, of the Department of State’s portion of the Global Water Strategy required under subsection (j);

“(iii) prioritize and coordinate the Department of State’s international engagement on the allocation, distribution, and access to global fresh water resources and policies related to such matters;

“(iv) coordinate with United States Agency for International Development and Department of State staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h) to ensure that United States diplomatic efforts related to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including efforts related to management of water resources and watersheds and the resolution of intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources, are consistent with United States national interests; and

“(v) represent the views of the United States Government on the allocation, distribution, and access to global fresh water resources and policies related to such matters in key international fora, including key diplomatic, development-related, and scientific organizations.

“(3) ADDITIONAL NATURE OF DUTIES AND RESTRICTION ON ADDITIONAL OR SUPPLEMENTAL COMPENSATION.—The responsibilities and specific duties of the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (or the Administrator’s designee) and the Secretary of State (or the Secretary’s designee) under paragraph (2) or (3), respectively, shall be in addition to any other responsibilities or specific duties assigned to such individuals. Such individuals shall receive no additional or supplemental compensation as a result of carrying out such responsibilities and specific duties under such paragraphs.”.

SEC. 5. PROMOTING THE MAXIMUM IMPACT AND LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY OF USAID SAFE WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE-RELATED PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS.

Section 136 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as redesignated and amended by this Act, is further amended by adding at the end the following:

“(f) Priorities And Criteria For Maximum Impact And Long-Term Sustainability.—The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall ensure that the Agency for International Development’s projects and programs authorized under this section are designed to achieve maximum impact and long-term sustainability by—

“(1) prioritizing countries on the basis of the following clearly defined criteria and indicators, to the extent sufficient empirical data are available—

“(A) the proportion of the population using an unimproved drinking water source;

“(B) the total population using an unimproved drinking water source;

“(C) the proportion of the population without piped water access;

“(D) the proportion of the population using shared or other unimproved sanitation facilities;

“(E) the total population using shared or other unimproved sanitation facilities;

“(F) the proportion of the population practicing open defecation;

“(G) the total number of children younger than 5 years of age who died from diarrheal disease;

“(H) the proportion of all deaths of children younger than 5 years of age resulting from diarrheal disease;

“(I) the national government’s capacity, capability, and commitment to work with the United States to improve access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including—

“(i) the government’s capacity and commitment to developing the indigenous capacity to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors; and

“(ii) the degree to which such government—

“(I) identifies such efforts as a priority; and

“(II) allocates resources to such efforts;

“(J) the availability of opportunities to leverage existing public, private, or other donor investments in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sectors, including investments in the management of water resources; and

“(K) the likelihood of making significant improvements on a per capita basis on the health and educational opportunities available to women as a result of increased access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including access to appropriate facilities at primary and secondary educational institutions seeking to ensure that communities benefitting from such projects and activities develop the indigenous capacity to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors;

“(2) prioritizing and measuring, including through rigorous monitoring and evaluating mechanisms, the extent to which such project or program—

“(A) furthers significant improvements in—

“(i) the criteria set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of paragraph (1);

“(ii) the health and educational opportunities available to women as a result of increased access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including access to appropriate facilities at primary and secondary educational institutions; and

“(iii) the indigenous capacity of the host nation or community to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors;

“(B) is designed, as part of the provision of safe water and sanitation to the local community—

“(i) to be financially independent over the long term, focusing on local ownership and sustainability;

“(ii) to be undertaken in conjunction with relevant public institutions or private enterprises;

“(iii) to identify and empower local individuals or institutions to be responsible for the effective management and maintenance of such project or program; and

“(iv) to provide safe water or expertise or capacity building to those identified parties or institutions for the purposes of developing a plan and clear responsibilities for the effective management and maintenance of such project or program;

“(C) leverages existing public, private, or other donor investments in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sectors, including investments in the management of water resources;

“(D) avoids duplication of efforts with other United States Government agencies or departments or those of other nations or nongovernmental organizations;

“(E) coordinates such efforts with the efforts of other United States Government agencies or departments or those of other nations or nongovernmental organizations directed at assisting refugees and other displaced individuals; and

“(F) involves consultation with appropriate stakeholders, including communities directly affected by the lack of access to clean water, sanitation or hygiene, and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations; and

“(3) seeking to further the strategy required under subsection (j) after 2018.

“(g) Use Of Current And Improved Empirical Data Collection And Review Of New Standardized Indicators.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development is authorized to use current and improved empirical data collection—

“(A) to meet the health-based prioritization criteria established pursuant to subsection (f)(1); and

“(B) to review new standardized indicators in evaluating progress towards meeting such criteria.

“(2) CONSULTATION AND NOTICE.—The Administrator shall—

“(A) regularly consult with the appropriate congressional committees; and

“(B) notify such committees not later than 30 days before using current or improved empirical data collection for the review of any new standardized indicators under paragraph (1) for the purposes of carrying out this section.

“(h) Designation Of High Priority Countries.—

“(1) INITIAL DESIGNATION.—Not later than October 1, 2015, the President shall—

“(A) designate, on the basis of the criteria set forth in subsection (f)(1) not fewer than 10 countries as high priority countries to be the primary recipients of United States Government assistance authorized under this section during fiscal year 2016; and

“(B) notify the appropriate congressional committees of such designations.

“(2) ANNUAL DESIGNATIONS.—

“(A) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the President shall annually make new designations pursuant to the criteria set forth in paragraph (1).

“(B) DESIGNATIONS AFTER FISCAL YEAR 2018.—Beginning with fiscal year 2019, designations under paragraph (1) shall be made—

“(i) based upon the criteria set forth in subsection (f)(1); and

“(ii) in furtherance of the strategy required under subsection (j).

“(i) Targeting Of Projects And Programs To Areas Of Greatest Need.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 15 days before the obligation of any funds for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs pursuant to this section in countries that are not ranked in the top 50 countries based upon the WASH Needs Index, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of the planned obligation of such funds.

“(2) DEFINED TERM.—In this subsection and in subsection (j), the term ‘WASH Needs Index’ means the needs index for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs authorized under this section that has been developed using the criteria and indicators described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of subsection (f)(1).”.

SEC. 6. UNITED STATES STRATEGY TO INCREASE APPROPRIATE LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY AND ACCESS TO SAFE WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE.

(a) In General.—Section 136 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as redesignated and amended by this Act, is further amended by adding at the end the following:

“(j) Global Water Strategy.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—Not later than October 1, 2017, October 1, 2022, and October 1, 2027, the President, acting through the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate, shall submit a single government-wide Global Water Strategy to the appropriate congressional committees that provides a detailed description of how the United States intends—

“(A) to increase access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene in high priority countries designated pursuant to subsection (h), including a summary of the WASH Needs Index and the specific weighting of empirical data and other definitions used to develop and rank countries on the WASH Needs Index;

“(B) to improve the management of water resources and watersheds in such countries; and

“(C) to work to prevent and resolve, to the greatest degree possible, both intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources in such countries.

“(2) AGENCY-SPECIFIC PLANS.—The Global Water Strategy shall include an agency-specific plan—

“(A) from the United States Agency for International Development that describes specifically how the Agency for International Development will—

“(i) carry out the duties and responsibilities assigned to the Global Water Coordinator under subsection (e)(1);

“(ii) ensure that the Agency for International Development’s projects and programs authorized under this section are designed to achieve maximum impact and long-term sustainability, including by implementing the requirements described in subsection (f); and

“(iii) increase access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene in high priority countries designated pursuant to subsection (h);

“(B) from the Department of State that describes specifically how the Department of State will—

“(i) carry out the duties and responsibilities assigned to the Special Coordinator for Water Resources under subsection (e)(2); and

“(ii) ensure that the Department’s activities authorized under this section are designed—

“(I) to improve management of water resources and watersheds in countries designated pursuant to subsection (h); and

“(II) to prevent and resolve, to the greatest degree possible, both intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources in such countries; and

“(C) from other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate, that describes the contributions of the departments and agencies to implementing the Global Water Strategy.

“(3) INDIVIDUALIZED PLANS FOR HIGH PRIORITY COUNTRIES.—For each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h), the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall—

“(A) develop a costed, evidence-based, and results-oriented plan that—

“(i) seeks to achieve the purposes of this section; and

“(ii) meets the requirements under subsection (f); and

“(B) include such plan in an appendix to the Global Water Strategy required under paragraph (1).

“(4) FIRST TIME ACCESS REPORTING REQUIREMENT.—The Global Water Strategy shall specifically describe the target percentage of funding for each fiscal year covered by such strategy to be directed toward projects aimed at providing first-time access to safe water and sanitation.

“(5) PERFORMANCE INDICATORS.—The Global Water Strategy shall include specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, performance metrics, timetables, and monitoring and evaluation plans required to be developed by the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development pursuant to subsection (e)(1)(B)(v).

“(6) CONSULTATION AND BEST PRACTICES.—The Global Water Strategy shall—

“(A) be developed in consultation with the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies; and

“(B) incorporate best practices from the international development community.

“(k) Definitions.—In this section—

“(1) the term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means—

“(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;

“(B) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

“(C) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and

“(D) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and

“(2) the term ‘long-term sustainability’ refers to the ability of a service delivery system, community, partner, or beneficiary to maintain, over time, any water, sanitation, or hygiene project that receives funding pursuant to the amendments made by the Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2014”..”.

(b) Department Of State Agency-Specific Plan.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit an agency-specific plan to the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 136(k) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by subsection (a)) that meets the requirements of section 136(j)(2)(B) of such Act, as added by subsection (a).

(c) Conforming Amendment.—Section 6 of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–121; 22 U.S.C. 2152h note) is repealed.

Attest:

Speaker of the House of Representatives.  

Attest:

Categories: hygiene, WASH, water, WatSan

Catarina de Albuquerque 2013 Health and Human Rights Lecture @UNCH2OInstitute

Tue, 14Jan2014 Comments off

 

Published on Nov 25, 2013

Catarina de Albuquerque, a leading human rights expert and the first United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to safe drinking water and sanitation, delivers the 2013 UNC Health and Human Rights Lecture, “Implementing Human Rights to Eliminate Inequalities in Water and Sanitation.”
DOWNLOAD THE PODCAST: https://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/…

The event is co-sponsored by the Center for Bioethics, the Department of Public Policy, the Water Institute at UNC and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases at UNC. It is part of the University’s campus-wide theme, ‘Water in Our World.’

 

Call for papers: Global Public Health Conference: Kattankulathur India

Mon, 07Oct2013 Comments off

Press Release

Global Public Health Conference GPHCON at SRM University, Kattankulathur

- Call for papers

- Last Date: November 30, 2013

  GPHCON 2014


Pre Conference Workshop -Thursday 20th February 2014

Conference – 21-23 February, 2014

Organized by : School of Public Health ,SRM University
Supported by : Distinguished Members of Public Health Associations of India

Secretariat
School of Public Health, III Floor, Medical College Building
SRM University ,SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur
Tamil Nadu-603203, India, Tel- +91-44-27455771
Email- gphcon2014@srmuniv.ac.in

For details: http://gphcon2014.wix.com/gphcon#!organising-committe-/c1d94

Greetings from the Organizing Committee -GPHCON2014 It is our privilege to intimate you that School of Public Health SRM University will be organizing Global Public Health Conference in February 21-23, 2014 and the pre-conference workshop is on February 20, 2014. The theme of the conference is “Multi- disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: innovations, practices and Future Strategies” and about 25 sub themes focuses on multi-disciplinary approaches.

The aim of this conference is to bring the public health professionals from various disciplines to a single platform and share their technical expertise for the benefit of the people and the world. If you are working actively with public health systems or practicing public health at any level we invite you to share your rich experience in the conference. Your participation would add great value to the conference and you will certainly enjoy being among the renowned intellectual expertise.

The venue of the conference is SRM University, Near Chennai. SRM University is the first private University in India and has many glorious achievements to its credit. SRM launched the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT in the year 2012: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The crowning glory for the SRM University is in being the first private University in India to host the 98th Indian Science Congress that was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities” was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in the year 2010 which was attended by more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.

Keeping the legacy of organizing the large national and international conferences we School of Public Health, SRM University invite your august participation in the conference.

ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY SRM

University is one of the top ranking universities in India with over 20,000 students and 1,500 faculties, offering a wide range of undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in Engineering, Management, Medicine and Health Sciences, and Science and Humanities. SRM University with multiple institutions having been established 28 years ago is one of the largest private Universities in India. Over two and half decades, SRM University has set standards in experimental education and knowledge creation across various fields. Over 600 acres replete with a variety of facilities, State-of-the-art labs, libraries, Wi-Fi, Knowledge centre, 4500 capacity AC auditorium, 100 online smart classrooms and hostels with premium facilities.

SRM University is the first private university in India to launch the Nano satellite named, SRMSAT: it has been designed by students and faculties of SRM University. The design is made robust enough support different payloads and act as Nano Bus for further mission. By this process SRM University would be able to provide qualified and trained scientist and technological manpower in satellite technology. Added to the crowning glory for the SRM University is that the 98th Indian Science Congress was hosted with the theme “Quality Education and Excellence in Scientific Research in Indian Universities”, was formally inaugurated by the Prime Minister in which more than 10,400 delegates from India and abroad including six Nobel Laureates has participated.

ABOUT THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Emerging as a School of Excellence in the 6 years of genesis, our staff brings experience in multiple disciplines and have hands on experience in local, national, and international health settings. Our capabilities in research, knowledge and practice have been tested time to time and proved successful..School of Public Health intercepts into many inter related disciplines, which have key elements in common that bring us together. School of Public Health, because of its unique standing is a powerful tool in bring about balance. The School works on “hubs and spokes” model linking many departments that include Medicine, Engineering, Nursing and Management in its manifold to function effectively. Postgraduate program in the School of Public Health is designed for graduates, who aspire to be leaders and professionals in public health, who aspire to reach high-level roles nationally and internationally. Our students come from all parts of India and a few International students from the Far East. They have relevant academic and work experience. Majority of our students have a prior health related degree, and we have students from various disciplines like Arts, Humanities and Engineering. We have Doctors and Public Health Officers nominated from various states and Union Territories.

This program prepares health professionals from a varied range of backgrounds, with knowledge and skills from a variety of disciplines, to define, critically assess and resolve public health and nutrition problems. Various fields of study allow students to focus on Indian public health issues and international public health, including nutrition and tropical health.

Theme   “Multi-disciplinary Approaches in Public Health: Innovations, Practices and Future Strategies”

Sub- Theme

  • Public Health Policy,
  • Public Health Education,
  • Pharmacovigilance in Public Health,
  • AYUSH and Public Health, Community Health,
  • Public Health Nursing, Public Health Engineering,
  • Health Analytics, Public Health Ethics and Legalities,
  • Veterinary Public Health, Occupational and Industrial Health,
  • Public Health Promotion and Behaviour Change Communication,
  • Migration Refugees and Urban Public Health, Public Health Nutrition,
  • Hospitality Industry and Public Health, Economics of Public Health,
  • Reproductive and Child Health Management in Public Health,
  • Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Equity Issues in Public Health,
  • Environmental Public Health, Public Health Research ,
  • CSR in Public Health, Role of NGOs in Public Health,
  • Medical Public Health, Public Health Dentistry,
  • Information Technology and Public Health
  • Disaster and Public Health

Abstract Submission

Authors who wish to submit abstract should follow the format for abstract submission that can be downloaded from the website. Abstracts should be written in English. Abstracts that are submitted must NOT have been previously presented in any other conference or published anywhere in any form.

Abstract should not exceed 300 words. It must be prepared in MS Word format. A 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1.5 line spacing should be used. Abstracts should be structured one with following sub-headings indicating in bold – Background; Objectives; Methods; Results; Conclusion. Always define abbreviations and acronyms including standard measures. Place special or unusual abbreviations in parentheses after the full word the first time it appears. Each abstract must be complete, i.e. it must include all information necessary for its comprehension and not refer to another text.

We encourage applying though online submission; however for the convenience the abstract can be emailed to gphcon.2014@srmuniv.edu.in. The submitted abstract will be reviewed by the expert committee and the authors will be notified about the acceptance by Email. If accepted for presentation the selected authors are requested to submit the full paper.

o Deadline for abstract submission – November 30, 2013.
o Last date for submission of full paper – December 31, 2013
o After you complete your submission, you will receive an e-mail that confirms your submission was successfully received.
o Keep a copy of your abstract submission for your records.

Paper: Estimating child health equity potential of improved sanitation – Nepal

Tue, 24Sep2013 Comments off

paper

Conceptual framework for using LiST to estimate the lives saved from WSS interventions  Acharya et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S25   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S25 Anjali Acharya,  Li Liu, Qingfeng Li and Ingrid K Friberg

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Estimating the child health equity potential of improved sanitation in Nepal

Abstract

Background

Access to improved sanitation plays an important role in child health through its impact on diarrheal mortality and malnutrition. Inequities in sanitation coverage translate into health inequities across socio-economic groups. This paper presents the differential impact on child mortality and diarrheal incidence of expanding sanitation coverage across wealth quintiles in Nepal.

Methods

We modeled three scale up coverage scenarios at the national level and at each of the 5 wealth quintiles for improved sanitation in Nepal in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): equal for all quintiles, realistically pro-poor and ambitiously pro-poor.

Results

The results show that equal improvement in sanitation coverage can save a total of 226 lives (10.7% of expected diarrhea deaths), while a realistically pro-poor program can save 451 child lives (20.5%) and the ambitiously pro-poor program can save 542 lives (24.6%).

Conclusions

Pro-poor policies for expanding sanitation coverage have the ability to reduce population level health inequalities which can translate into reduced child diarrheal mortality.  more….

Paper: Human rights & health systems development: Confronting the politics… Duncan Maru & Paul Farmer

Fri, 20Sep2013 Comments off

paper/article:

Duncan Maru and Paul Farmer

Publication: Health and Human Rights    (From listing of articles/papers Wednesday, August 14, 2013)

Human rights and health systems development: Confronting the politics of exclusion and the economics of inequality

Abstract

The social movements of the last two decades have fostered a rights-based approach to health systems development within the global discourse on national and international health governance. In this piece, we discuss ongoing challenges in the cavernous “implementation gap ”— translating legislative victories for human rights into actual practice and delivery. Using accompaniment as an underlying principle, we focus primarily on constructing effective, equitable, and accountable public sector health systems. Public sector health care delivery is challenged by increasingly exclusive politics and inequitable economic policies that severely limit the participatory power of marginalized people. Finally, we discuss the role of implementation science in closing the delivery gap.
 

Introduction: The right to health

The human rights approach to public health systems development has been a central theme to emerge from the explosive growth in global health awareness and funding in the last two decades.1  The notion that health care systems are both national and international public goods protecting the essential rights of all citizens, while not wholly embraced, has gained traction in global debates about health care financing, governance, and implementation.2 In this piece, we discuss challenges in translating consensus around health as a human right into one particular aspect of the right to health: namely, access to effective health care systems that reach the most vulnerable.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was published in 1948,3 marking the start of the modern human rights movement. The poles of civil and political rights versus social and economic rights established during the Cold War era prevailed until the early 1990s, when a relative consensus emerged that the different human rights domains should be integrated. The global movement to combat HIV/AIDS represents the broadest, deepest, most concerted effort to date to forge a link between health and human rights. It is no coincidence that this movement was initiated, expanded, and sustained by individuals from communities bearing the highest burdens of HIV disease.  The movement was successful because it was driven and led by individuals directly affected by the epidemic. This movement both globalized public health and connected it to the rights agenda.4

A major challenge in translating the successes of the HIV/AIDS movement into broader health systems change is deepening the involvement of citizens who would be most impacted by such changes—often the most marginalized populations.  Wealthier citizens tend to be able to rely on for-profit, privatized health services and therefore have little incentive to partner with poorer citizens to advance public sector health systems change.

Herein lies a paradox in health and human rights. At no time in human history has health as a human right been as prominent in international and national health discourse as it is now. Yet we also face ongoing expansion of the politics of exclusion and the economics of inequality, which pose immense challenges to implementing human rights-based advances.  Human rights legislation without effective delivery systems is impotent; effective delivery systems without human rights protections (for example, legislative guarantees) will fail to deliver to the most vulnerable.

For health systems development, why does the rights-based view remain relevant today? While much has changed, the underlying forces driving health inequity remain the same. We believe that effective health care systems must guarantee the right to health for our most vulnerable citizens. While this is a sweeping statement, it is important to differentiate this rights-based approach from other approaches that seek merely to reduce population disease, maximize cost-effectiveness, or facilitate rational private investment in health. Our stance is a fundamentally moral one, rooted in the lived experiences of our patients, but it is also deeply pragmatic. To free the world’s poor from the diseases that continue to stalk them, we must build better public sector systems. more….

About the Publication: Health and Human Rights:

Health and Human Rights began publication in 1994 under the editorship of Jonathan Mann. Paul Farmer, co-founder of Partners In Health, assumed the editorship in 2007. Health and Human Rights is an online, open-access publication.

Health and Human Rights provides an inclusive forum for action-oriented dialogue among human rights practitioners. The journal endeavors to increase access to human rights knowledge in the health field by linking an expanded community of readers and contributors. Following the lead of a growing number of open access publications, the full text of Health and Human Rights is freely available to anyone with internet access.

Health and Human Rights focuses rigorous scholarly analysis on the conceptual foundations and challenges of rights discourse and action in relation to health. The journal is dedicated to empowering new voices from the field — highlighting the innovative work of groups and individuals in direct engagement with human rights struggles as they relate to health. We seek to foster engaged scholarship and reflective activism. In doing so, we invite informed action to realize the full spectrum of human rights. more…

This article is important in its own right.  WASHLink believes Hygiene, Sanitation, Water,  & Public Health can not, must not, should not be siloed. If we shall build apart we shall fall together, so while not addressed directly, we  see there is a underlying appeal in this article for such. We encourage you to read on, and explore the invaluable site it is posted on. We can hope this article and other articles found on the Health and Human Rights site  reach the eye of the policy makers and  there minions that execute their edicts. While perhaps trite: we all have  some responsibility  / some role to play in moving this forward.

new paper: non-clinical interventions for preventable & treatable childhood diseases – what do we know?

Thu, 19Sep2013 1 comment

new paper: by  Maureen Seguin  and Miguel Niño-Zarazúa

United Nations University,

Munich Personal RePEc Archive

13. September 2013

“What do we know about non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries?”

Abstract:

Preventable and treatable childhood diseases, notably acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are the first and second leading causes of death and morbidity among young children in developing countries. The fact that a large proportion of child deaths are caused by these diseases is symptomatic of dysfunctional policy strategies and health systems in the developing world. Though clinical interventions against such diseases have been thoroughly studied, non-clinical interventions have received much less attention. This paper contributes to the existing literature on child wellbeing in two important respects: first, it presents a theory of change-based typology that emerges from a systematic review conducted on non-clinical interventions against preventable and treatable childhood diseases. Second, it pays particular attention to policies that have been tested in a developing country context, and which focus on children as the primary target population. Overall, we find that improved water supply and quality, sanitation and hygiene, as well as the provision of medical equipment that detect symptoms of childhood diseases, along with training and education for medical workers, are effective policy instruments to tackle diarrhoeal diseases and acute respiratory infections in developing countries. more…

34 page pdf

Seguin, Maureen and Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel (2013): What do we know about non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries? Published in: WIDER Working Paper Series , Vol. 2013, No. 087 (13. September 2013)

WASHLink  from time to time likes to briefly note newly publish papers in hopes of giving  them a wider audience – let us know if you know of paper that could use this very small piece of publicity…

Get $100K to Reduce the World’s Sh!ts or Other Global Health Idea

Fri, 06Sep2013 Comments off

Show Us a Great Idea, We’ll Show You $100,000

$100,000 Grants Available for New Ideas to: Encourage The World’s Poorest People to Seek Health Care, Develop a New Condom, and  Reduce Diarrhea, One of the Biggest Killers of Children on the Planet

 press release

SEATTLE, September 5, 2013 - The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is accepting applications for the latest  of its Grand Challenges Explorations initiative, a ground-breaking grant program encouraging bold approaches aimed at improving the lives of the world’s poorest people. The simple, online, two-page application is open to creative thinkers from any discipline or any organization.

“We continue to push for a regular stream of fresh ideas to help overcome persistent health and development challenges,” said Chris Wilson, Director of Global Health Discovery & Translational Sciences at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.  “Innovative thinking fuels the progress needed to overcome obstacles the world faces to pull people out of poverty.”

Grand Challenges Explorations encourages proposals from individuals or groups with anything to offer, from anywhere in the world, and seeks to uncover cross-discipline approaches. Since its launch in 2008, the program has funded more than 850 grants in 50 countries.

To learn more about the topics in this round, visit www.grandchallenges.org. Proposals are being accepted through November 12, 2013.

The Gates Foundation and an independent group of reviewers selects the most promising proposals, and grants will be awarded within approximately four months from the proposal submission deadline. Initial grants are $100,000 each. Projects demonstrating potential will have the opportunity to receive additional funding up to $1 million.

###

About the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health with vaccines and other lifesaving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. To learn more, visit www.gatesfoundation.org. You can also join the conversation on Facebook, Twitter, and our blog www.impatientoptimists.org.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
206-709-3400

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