JAMA addresses effectiveness of Azithromycin in treating Trachoma
source JAMA Vol. 302 No. 9, September 2, 2009 Abstract
From article titled:
“Effect of Mass Distribution of Azithromycin for Trachoma Control on Overall Mortality in Ethiopian Children”
Context Mass oral azithromycin distribution to affected communities is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization’s trachoma elimination program. Antibiotics are provided to target the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but may also be efficacious against respiratory disease, diarrhea, and malaria—frequent causes of childhood mortality in trachoma-endemic areas.
Interventions A single dose of oral azithromycin (adults, 1 g; children, 20 mg/kg) was administered for treatment of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Antibiotic coverage levels for children aged 1 to 9 years exceeded 80% at all visits.
Results The odds ratio for childhood mortality in the intervention communities was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.90; P = .02; clustered logistic regression) compared with the control group.
In the treated communities, for children aged 1 to 9 years
- the estimated overall mortality rate during this period for in the untreated group was 8.3 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 5.3-13.1),
- while among the treated communities, the estimated overall mortality rate was 4.1 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 3.0-5.7)
Travis C. Porco, PhD, MPH; Teshome Gebre, MBA; Berhan Ayele, MSc; Jenafir House, MPH; Jeremy Keenan, MD; Zhaoxia Zhou, BS; Kevin Cyrus Hong, BS; Nicole Stoller, MPH; Kathryn J. Ray, MA; Paul Emerson, PhD; Bruce D. Gaynor, MD; Thomas M. Lietman, MD
source: abstract Vol. 302 No. 9, September 2, 2009 Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA. 2009;302(9):962-968. : http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/302/9/962
A Brief Background on Trachoma:
“Trachoma, a disease caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis, affects more than 80 million individuals worldwide, and 8 million persons are blind because of this infection. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (lining of the eye surface) causes irritation and scarring, leading to blindness if trachoma is not treated. Trachoma is a serious public health problem in developing countries. Better sanitation and improved clean water supplies are ways to decrease the prevalence of trachoma and reduce trachoma-related blindness. Trachoma occurs in children as well as adults in all parts of the world. Women are much more likely than men to develop trachoma or become blind from trachoma. In the United States, blindness due to trachoma has been eliminated because of widespread prevention and treatment efforts. Since trachoma is a contagious disease, it can occur in family groups or in persons who live in close quarters. The bacteria are spread by secretions from the eye or the nose and pass from person to person. Flies can also pass on the bacteria, especially in areas that have poor sanitation. The September 2, 2009, issue of JAMA includes an article about the effects of mass distribution of an antibiotic for treatment and prevention of trachoma.”
source and for more details ( SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION, and addition links) see the following JAMA Patient Page http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/302/9/1022?home