Home > magnesium ammonium phosphate, Nepal, sanitation, Urine, water > Struvite from Urine in Nepal: STUN

Struvite from Urine in Nepal: STUN

Fri, 04Sep2009

Bastian collector moringa reactorII

source source http://www.eawag.ch/organisation/abteilungen/sandec/publikationen/stun
The STUN project, operated in co-operation with UN-HABITAT Nepal, examines the feasibility of converting source-separated urine into a dry fertilizer product called ‘struvite’. Struvite (often called MAP for magnesium ammonium phosphate: MgNH4PO4.6H2O) is a safe, bioavailable fertilizer which can be precipitated from urine with only the addition of magnesium.

Working in the Kathmandu Valley, with the community of Siddhipur, the STUN project has assessed the social,


see map

economic, and technical feasibility of producing struvite at the community level. By producing struvite from urine, we hope to promote improved sanitation, local food security, and nutrient independence as Nepal must import all of its fertilizer at prices which are not always affordable for subsistence farmers.

The following reports are available for download:

E Tilley, K Udert, B Etter, R Khadka, E John. (2009). Struvite Recovery in Kathamandu: A business model for increased food security
(award winning poster from the Alliance for Global Sustainability 2009 Annual Meeting)

Etter, B. (2009).  Process optimization of low-cost struvite recovery. Masters thesis submitted to EPFL.

Etter, B. (2009). Struvite recovery from urine at community scale in Nepal. Intermediate report. Eawag: Swiss Federal Insitute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (technical optimization)

Gantenbein, B. and Khadka, R. (2009). Struvite Recovery from Urine at Community Scale in Nepal: Final Project Report Phase 1. Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (social assessment)

Kashekya, E.J. (2009). Struvite production from source separated urine in Nepal: The reuse potential of the effluent. MSc Thesis MWI-SE 2009/01. UNESCO-IHE and Eawag, Delft, The Netherlands.

Further reading:

Tilley, E., Gantenbein, B., Khadka, R., Zurbrügg, C. and Udert, K.M. (2009). Social and economic feasibility of struvite recovery from uine at the community level in Nepal. In: International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams. K. Ashley, D. Mavinic and F. Koch (eds). IWA Publishing, London, pp 169-178.

For more information (in Switzerland) please contact struvite.nepal@eawag.ch

For more information on:



phosphorus depletion:




Urine separation and reuse:



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