A great video to watch while waiting to see the recording of Rose George when she spoke at Ted 2013
Rose George thinks, researches, writes and talks about sanitation. Diarrhea is a weapon of mass destruction, says the UK-based journalist and author, and a lack of access to toilets is at the root of our biggest public health crisis. In 2012, two out of five of the world’s population had nowhere sanitary to go.
The key to turning around this problem is to “stop putting the toilet behind a locked door,” says George. Let’s drop the pretense of “water-related diseases” and call out the cause of myriad afflictions around the world — “poop-related diseases” that are preventable with a basic toilet. Once we do, we can start using human waste for good.
George explores the problem in her book The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters and in a fabulous special issue of Colors magazine called “Shit: A Survival Guide.”
Related Links for Rose George
- Go home and talk s***: Rose George at TED2013
- Contact info , book info and a whole lot more on her web site….
- Animated homage to her Book: The Indoorfins present: The Big Necessity :-)
Other powerful TED , TEDX, TED-Ed links
- TEDxYYC – “David Damberger – Learning from Failure” -Wonderful Reflection on his WATSAN Experience
- TEDx HOW NEXTDROP IS USING CELL PHONES, CROWDSOURCING TO GET WATER TO THE THIRSTY.
- TEDxBerlin Noa Lerner:X-runner. Sanitation Social Business
- TEDxAmsterdamWomen Anjali Sarker – Toilet+ overcoming my childhood fear TEDX event
- Revolutionizing Sanitation in Developing Nations: Yu-Ling Cheng at TEDxYouth@Toronto
- Where we get our fresh water – Christiana Z. Peppard TED-Ed
- Turning recycled wastewater into a commoditized resource : Valérie Issumo at TEDxLausanne
- The Wello Water Wheel Story : Cynthia Koenig at TEDxGateway
This is a Wonderful 39 page Technical document on covering all aspect of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.
- Dr V M Chariar
- S Ramesh Sakthivel
This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.
Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details
- Waterless Urinals
- 1.1 Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
- 1.2 Demerits of Conventional Urinals
- Functioning of Waterless Urinals
- 2.1 Sealant Liquid Traps
- 2.2 Membrane Traps
- 2.3 Biological Blocks
- 2.4 Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
- 2.5 Other Types of odour Traps
- 2.6 Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
- Innovative Urinal Designs
- 3.1 Public Urinal Kiosk 21
- 3.2 Green Waterless Urinal
- 3.3 Self Constructed Urinals
- Urine Diverting Toilets
- Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
- 5.1 Safe Application of Urine 3
- 5.2 Methods of Urine Application
- Other Applications of Urine
- Challenges and the Way Forward
- References and Further Reading
- Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
- Average chemical composition of fresh urine
- Recommended dose of urine for various crops
- Waterless urinals for men
- Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
- Sealant liquid based odour trap
- Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
- Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
- LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
- Biological blocks
- Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
- Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
- Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
- Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
- Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
- Deep injection of urine using soil injector
- Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
- Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
- Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
- Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.” more on Zerodor…
Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.
In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.
- UNICEF Report Highlights India’s Water Management Woes (circleofblue.org)
- SANITATION: Urban water woes (irinnews.org)
- From Water Problems to Water Solutions (slideshare.net)
- Lack of toilets, clean water costs world $260 bln a year – Liberian president (trust.org)
Dr. Yu-Ling Cheng delivers a great overview of the current state of sanitatio and gives an over of her current efforts. She speaks of how she came to understand it to be essential to be part of the sanitation solution. She is addressing a group of student on the cusp of pick paths to travel starting colleges. She delivers a message that will ring true many regardless of age and path now traveling.
Dr. Yu-Ling Cheng is the Director of the Centre for Global Engineering (CGEN) and Professor of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University Of Toronto. CGEN was established in 2009 to be the focal point and major driver in preparing engineering graduates to meet challenges, responsibilities and opportunities in a globally sustainable future. Under her leadership, CGEN is developing new courses and academic programs in global engineering. She also leads new global engineering research initiatives, most notably a project under the “Re-invent the Toilet” challenge posed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Aside from her interests in global engineering, Professor Cheng’s research interests have centered around drug delivery, and the understanding of transport processes in polymeric and physiologic systems. She is a member the Teaching Academy, the highest honour for teaching at the University of Toronto. She also serves on the Board of Directors for Academics Without Borders, an NGO whose mission is to enhance higher education capacity in developing countries.
- Professor Yu-Ling Cheng Discusses the Toilet Challenge (on Vimeo)
- A look at the prototype of the device Yu-Ling team is working on (youtube)
- University of Toronto awarded $2.2 million grant for toilet research
- TEDxAmsterdamWomen Anjali Sarker – Toilet+ overcoming my childhood fear TEDX event (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Canadian engineer helping reinvent the toilet (sunnewsnetwork.ca)
To discover a toilet concept design, which in its design, will address the various sanitation and related challenges faced by the millions of Africans i.e. no or limited access to water resources, scarcity of water resources, the absence of adequate bulk infrastructure (water and waste water works), high levels of unemployment and poverty, inadequate or no housing structures, disease, hunger etc. and in doing so, afford access to acceptable, safe and adequate sanitation whilst promoting the harvesting of by-products such as compost and urine for the establishment of self-sustained food gardens. The winning concept design(s) should adequately address / prevent and/or limited disease mitigation from transmission through the 5 C`s i.e. fluid, feet, food, fingers and flies.
Closing Date for Submission 30 September 2012
Short listed candidates Notified 30 October 2012
Winning Designs Announced 4 December 2012
Terms of Reference and Concept Design Specification IMPORTANT:
The design specifications exclude any potential design that:
- requires water to operate
- requires excavation of ground for installation
- resembles VIP or Double VIP Toilets
Design Specification The design should:
- Be environmentally friendly i.e. waterless and chemical free
- Promote aerobic processes and the dehydration of faecal matter through forced ventilation
- Promote urine diversion and the collection thereof (urine collection tank) and the conversion of faecal matter to compost-like material for agrarian use
- Be an On-site system i.e. collection and processing of human faecal matter, with little or no off site removal required
- Include a heat energy device that promotes further dehydration, creates a negative pressure and promotes an odourless environment
- Be self-contained i.e. the design must prevent spillage of both urine and faecal matter into the surrounding soil
- Be for a 1: 1 USE to promote household use (family of 4 – 6 people).
- Portability: Should be light weight, easy to transport and relocate.
- Durability: Should be strong in its design and afford vertical weight transfer efficiency of up to 200 Kilograms,
- UV – resistant.
- The design should be robust in its design in order to withstand the harsh African climate.
- The faecal collection chamber should allow for easy removal during cleaning cycles.
- Cleaning cycles, under normal use, should be once every 4 (four) weeks,
- Cleaning material/products should to be specified to enhance composting processes – should be certified bio-degradable and compostable.
- Personal safety and precautionary measures to be specified and amplified.
The final design:
- Should be an above ground toilet system
- Should be able of mass production and rapid implementation in target areas though out Africa
- Should have a minimal of moving parts
- Should be affordable, both in its capital expenditure and monthly cleaning costs
- Should necessitate the use of bulking agent and toilet paper “only”
- Must be accompanied with the appropriate design specification schedules, cleaning and installation manuals.
- Must accommodate for the introduction of CLTS Principles in both its implementation phase and cleaning phase.
- All submissions must be accompanied by a sample concept design toilet unit.
- Submissions may be sent electronically via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Sample concept design units (actual toilet) (Shortlisted candidates only) MUST be sent to:
- Unit 1 Linton Close
ParowWestern Cape South Africa
MARKED: 2012 AFRICAN TOILET DESIGN COMPETITION
For complete details got to African Toilet Design Competition
- Unit 1 Linton Close
5. Prize Money
1st Prize Allocation
2ND Prize Allocation
3rd Prize Allocation
Total Prize Value
US$ estimated due to exchange rate fluctuations.
Winning concepts designs will attract commercial relationship with sponsor to further the commercialization of their designs.
Proudly Sponsored by:
For complete details got to African Toilet Design Competition
all details/text on this page come directly from PDF found at the above site
from site:”Nikki Shaw is a water and sanitation (watsan) engineer with a passion for toilets. With a career spanning two decades and five continents, Nikki has extensive watsan expertise in both industrial and developing countries: Rural water supply systems in Botswana, grassroots sanitation provision projects in Cambodia, to designing sewerage for Hong Kong tower blocks and Singapore MRT train systems. She has learned many valuable lessons and shares a surprising revelation: Safe toilets are the key to everything good.”
“TEDxSingaporeWomen 2011 was TEDxSingapore’s 13th event since 2009 and was a collaborative event with TEDxWomen in New York and Los Angeles and over 80 TEDx events across the globe.”
There was post on the yahoo group ECOSANRES asking about Cold Climate toilets -Cold weather toilets.
A reply mentioned this PDF:
Urine Diverting Toilets in Climates with Cold Winters Technical considerations and the reuse of nutrients with a focus on legal and hygienic aspects.
While the report is several year old, the $h1t is still good and worthy of summarizing
Authors and Editors:
- Anna Richert Stintzing
- VERNA, Ecological Inc., Sweden
- Dr. Håkan Jönsson
- Dr. Caroline Schönning
- Kati Hinkkanen
- Dr. Elisabeth Kvarnström
- Dr. Zsofia Ganrot
- Margriet Samwel
- Sascha Gabizon
- Annemarie Mohr
- Publisher: WECF – Women in Europe for a Common Future
- Pages:42 1.35 mb
- It is formatted 3 columns / page which doe not lend itself well to computer screens and pdf readers
- It is a fast read to those in this field
- It is a good read for someone who knows little about this field
1 – Summary
2 – Dry Urine Diversion
3 – EU directives relating to dry urine diversion where urine and faeces
4 – Legal aspects
5 – Cold temperature aspects
- Freezing of urine
- Hygiene and treatment of urine
- Pharmaceuticals and hormones
- Hygiene and treatment of faeces
- Technical aspects: construction and maintenance of
- urine diverting toilets in climates with cold winters
- Pipes for urine
- Odour control with ventilation
- System for reuse of urine and faeces in crop production
- Home gardens
- Large Scale Agricultural Production
6 – Examples from pilot projects and research from the northern hemisphere
7 – Knowledge gaps and identified research needs
8 – Annex
Three key points from the Reportssummary are:
“There are functioning examples of dry urine diversion in regions in the world with cold winter climates. The examples presented in the report show that it is possible to arrange agricultural reuse of urine and faeces in large or small scale crop production.”
“The fact that there are only short periods during the year when urine can be used as a fertiliser place demands on a storage system for the urine. There are a few alternatives; one of the most economic may be to arrange storage on a farm, in covered storage containers previously used for animal urine.”
“There are still development needs and knowledge gaps. Some of these are related to temperate and cold climates, such as the fate of microorganisms in urine at temperatures below freezing. However, this should not be considered a major constraint to the development of dry urine diversion, since the risk is relatively low, and can be handled through combination with other hygienic activities.”
The report reprints 3 basic but useful tables from other organizations:
1: Recommended guideline storage times for urinea based on estimated pathogen contentb and recommended crop for larger systemsc (WHO, 2006).
2: Requirements on storage and allowed crops for diverted human urine that is collected from larger systems. (Swedish EPA, 2002).
3: Recommendations for storage treatment of dry excreta and faecal sludge before use at household and large-scale (municipal) levels. The treatments assume no
addition of non-sanitised material (WHO, 2006).
Again the report is a quick and easy read, providing a good preface to a much larger document that needs to be written on the subject. The report ends nicely, saying we need more research :
“There are some definite areas where there is a need of systematic research and development (R&D). Some of these, especially related to winter climate aspects, are specified in the following text.
One of the most discussed questions regarding urine diversion is the fate of pharmaceutical residues after excretion, and how this affects choice of collection and treatment of human excreta. Research on fate of pharmaceuticals in waste water treatment plants is being undertaken in Germany and Sweden. No known field studies are taking place on fate of pharmaceutical residues when urine or sewage sludge is applied to the soil. The current recommendation to use urine as a fertiliser in agriculture rests on the analysis that the soil system is well suited to digest harmful organic substances due to microbial life in the surface layers of soil. This would be an interesting field of study that can give valuable information on design of reuse systems.
Sanitisation of faeces is another aspect that needs attention. The WHO guidelines on the reuse of human excreta in agriculture mention the alkaline treatment by adding ashes or alkaline substances with a storage time of 6 month ( > 35 °C ) as a possible way to sanitise faeces, or 1,5 – 2 years storage time. The temperature intervals given do not cater for needs in temperate or cold climates, which means that knowledge on treatment of faeces in this region should be developed. Research on more simple and robust treatment methods is needed.
Suggested applied R&D projects
- Establishment of new pilot projects and evaluation of existing projects. Monitoring and evaluation of existing dry urine diversion projects is a costefficient way of generating knowledge. Dissemination of results, regardless of if they are positive or negative, from existing pilots is vital. The establishment of new pilot projects will also contribute to the bank of knowledge.
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on requested storage in ambient or alkaline environment in temperate and cold climates (winters with temperatures far below zero).
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on the implementation of chemical sanitisation of faeces with urea. This is an interesting method, but the practical implications need to be studied and developed.
- Sanitisation of urine: what happens in the urine when it is frozen and what are the implications for storage intervals?
- Pharmaceutical residues: studies of soil system when urine is used as a fertiliser. Effect on microbial community, speed of decomposition. Comparisons with sewage sludge, farmyard manure.
- Toilet design: development of risers and squat-plates for local production. Care given to needs of different users: children, disabled, elderly, men, women. Toilets of today need development since many do not divert as much urine as possible, and are unnecessarily difficult to clean.
- Systems analysis from an economic point of view. Comparison of investment and maintenance costs of urine diversion systems and conventional sanitation.
- Systems analysis from an environmental point of view. How do different activities affect the sustainability of the system, for example fertilisation strategies, choice of tank, joint measures or single toilets?
- What are the economical incentives for implementation of urine diversion? How to design the economical system with the regard to municipal responsibility and financial support/ interactions. How should the systems be organized and which are the most important drivers for the different stake holders.”
other related links
- Inactivation of bacteria and viruses in human urine depending on temperature and dilution rate.
- The Swedish Eco-Sanitation Experience pdf
- Ecosan Sanitation Facilities resources
- Reuse of faeces and urine – Appropedia: The sustainability wiki
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture
- Human urine – Chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency
The Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia report came out in June 2010.
The Study Starts of stating the fact that “Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2010 data indicate that around 38% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation services and that open defecation remains a widespread practice for over 60 million Indonesians. “
With a majority of Indonesia being Muslims the study include a a look at Muslim teaching on the subject of sanitation. “The study objective was to identify the social, religious, cultural and gender-related factors which inﬂuence rural people’s attitudes towards urine and excreta-based fertilizers in general and the EcoSan urine diversion system in particular. It doe not pretend to be anything but a modest study: ” the study does not seek to be a comprehensive reﬂection of the whole of Indonesia. Instead, it provides a preliminary assessment of attitudes towards EcoSan, and identiﬁ es some key drivers and inhibitors…” It survey 350 people in 5 out of 33 provinces included Muslims, Christians and respondents with traditional
beliefs. Four producers and retailers of excreta and urine based fertilizer were also identiﬁ ed and interviewed.
One of the key finding come in this paragraph:
“The study data show that this is not only a Muslim religious objection,
but that Christians also consider it difﬁcult to keep the excreta dry by not
using water above the disposal hole. While the percentage of Muslims who
considered it difﬁcult to keep the disposal hole dry was fairly constant, the
percentage of Christians who felt this way varied from 35% in Kulon Progo,
Central Java to 78% in East Sumba. This conﬁrms the assumption that
use of water for cleansing, where available, is also an Indonesian cultural
behavior that inhibits the use of a toilet system requiring dry storage. “
The study reports the researchers’ findings that more than “…80% of the respondents are willing to use urine or feces-based fertilizer.” The report goes on to say a similar number are willing to consume products from the fields using compost based fertilizer. The hard part, the study states, is only 50% of the people surveyed are will to to be involved in processing the urine and feces to make the compost. (I would like to know how this compares to other locations around the world 50% Seems high- a positive rather than negative - )
The study goes on to look at the roles/ potential roles men and women of a family unit have on
- selecting fertilizer for crops, and for selection installing,toilets for the family.
- selecting toilets installing them and composting waste from them.
The conclusions are complex. Hopefully organizations that want to just plop down ecosan units all anywhere in the will carefully read this short but informative report in its entirety. We must truly understand the people, if we / they are to have success with ecosan or any other viable alternative!
INTRODUCTION: ECOSAN IN INDONESIA
- Objective of the Study
- Consideration of EcoSan as a Sanitation Option
DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EXISTS ACROSS RELIGIONS AND REGIONS
- Excreta-based fertilizers are still a sensitive issue for some
RESERVATIONS ABOUT USING ECOSAN TOILETS
- Gender Differences
IS HUMAN EXCRETA-BASED FERTILIZER NAJIS?
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) “…a multi-donor partnership administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.”
The research was carried out by Entin Sriani Muslim assisted by Ana Nurhasanah in 2009. This learning
note was co-authored by Martin Albrecht, Isabel Blackett, and Ikabul Arianto and peer reviewed by
Eduardo Perez and Jeremy Colin.
Document type Pdf with search-able / selectable text. 4 pages Includes images and graphs
Join the United Wash Campaign and use the Football World Cup to help the cause of Water, Sanitation & Hygiene
WASH United is a coalition of international and African civil society organizations, United Nations agencies, governments and leading actors from the world of football using the power of sport to promote safe drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) for all people, everywhere. In their campaign for the 2010 World Cup, WASH United focuses on eight countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Burkina Faso, Mali, Lesotho, Uganda and Tanzania). In addition, WASH United has also targeted activities taking place in Europe to raise awareness among the general public and decision makers.
WASH United is also a Club that already counts among its members some of the world’s biggest football stars like Didier Drogba, Nwankwo Kanu or Stephen Appiah. WSSCC is a partner to this project and calls on all members to join this great initiative. Join WASH United and Take Action:
§ As an individual living in a community or country where people lack access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, you can help by :
- Inviting your friends and family to team up with WASH United
- Informing your friends, colleagues, peers and family about the importance of WASH for health and dignity
- Spreading the word that football superstars like Didier Drogba, Nwankwo Kanu or Stephen Appiah are now Champions for WASH
- Circulating WASH United materials and participating in WASH United Events
- Approaching local and national decision makers and demanding that they increase efforts to ensure WASH for all
- Helping to generate political will at the international level by signing our petitions
§ As an individual living in a community or country where all people enjoy access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, you can help by:
- Inviting your friends and family to team up with WASH United
- Informing your friends, colleagues, peers and family about the water and sanitation crisis in many parts of the world – and encouraging them to act
- Purchasing the WASH United Team Shirt at our cooperation partner
- Engaging with the Parliamentarian representing your community and/or the Ministry in charge of development cooperation, calling for a stronger focus on WASH in your country’s development cooperation
- Creating political pressure: write to your Member of Parliament and demand vigorous efforts to end the water and sanitation crisis
- Helping to generate political will at the international level and act in solidarity with people lacking access to WASH by signing our petitions
To know more and to register, go to www.wash-united.org.