The Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia report came out in June 2010.
The Study Starts of stating the fact that “Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2010 data indicate that around 38% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation services and that open defecation remains a widespread practice for over 60 million Indonesians. “
With a majority of Indonesia being Muslims the study include a a look at Muslim teaching on the subject of sanitation. “The study objective was to identify the social, religious, cultural and gender-related factors which inﬂuence rural people’s attitudes towards urine and excreta-based fertilizers in general and the EcoSan urine diversion system in particular. It doe not pretend to be anything but a modest study: ” the study does not seek to be a comprehensive reﬂection of the whole of Indonesia. Instead, it provides a preliminary assessment of attitudes towards EcoSan, and identiﬁ es some key drivers and inhibitors…” It survey 350 people in 5 out of 33 provinces included Muslims, Christians and respondents with traditional
beliefs. Four producers and retailers of excreta and urine based fertilizer were also identiﬁ ed and interviewed.
One of the key finding come in this paragraph:
“The study data show that this is not only a Muslim religious objection,
but that Christians also consider it difﬁcult to keep the excreta dry by not
using water above the disposal hole. While the percentage of Muslims who
considered it difﬁcult to keep the disposal hole dry was fairly constant, the
percentage of Christians who felt this way varied from 35% in Kulon Progo,
Central Java to 78% in East Sumba. This conﬁrms the assumption that
use of water for cleansing, where available, is also an Indonesian cultural
behavior that inhibits the use of a toilet system requiring dry storage. “
The study reports the researchers’ findings that more than “…80% of the respondents are willing to use urine or feces-based fertilizer.” The report goes on to say a similar number are willing to consume products from the fields using compost based fertilizer. The hard part, the study states, is only 50% of the people surveyed are will to to be involved in processing the urine and feces to make the compost. (I would like to know how this compares to other locations around the world 50% Seems high- a positive rather than negative - )
The study goes on to look at the roles/ potential roles men and women of a family unit have on
- selecting fertilizer for crops, and for selection installing,toilets for the family.
- selecting toilets installing them and composting waste from them.
The conclusions are complex. Hopefully organizations that want to just plop down ecosan units all anywhere in the will carefully read this short but informative report in its entirety. We must truly understand the people, if we / they are to have success with ecosan or any other viable alternative!
INTRODUCTION: ECOSAN IN INDONESIA
- Objective of the Study
- Consideration of EcoSan as a Sanitation Option
DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EXISTS ACROSS RELIGIONS AND REGIONS
- Excreta-based fertilizers are still a sensitive issue for some
RESERVATIONS ABOUT USING ECOSAN TOILETS
- Gender Differences
IS HUMAN EXCRETA-BASED FERTILIZER NAJIS?
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) “…a multi-donor partnership administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.”
The research was carried out by Entin Sriani Muslim assisted by Ana Nurhasanah in 2009. This learning
note was co-authored by Martin Albrecht, Isabel Blackett, and Ikabul Arianto and peer reviewed by
Eduardo Perez and Jeremy Colin.
Document type Pdf with search-able / selectable text. 4 pages Includes images and graphs
GTZ Has published a set of technology reviews the last Quarter of 2009 dealing with “some
technologies commonly used as toilets or as treatment systems in ecosan systems.”
GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit translated- German Agency for Technical Cooperation) is federally owned and “…supports the German Government in achieving its development-policy objectives.” according to its about us web page Thier focus is sustainable development. Their is site is available in English and Deutsche de
The following comes from http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/wasser/9397.htm and the actual documents.
Technology Review 1: Urine diversion components
Technology Review 2: Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)
- Content includes:
- colored posters in one of the common languages of the country produced in, viewable on a stands size copy paper.
Technology Review 3: Composting toilets
Technology Review 4: Biogas sanitation
Technologie Review 5: Constructed wetlands
They, GTZ, suggests the site http://www.susana.org/lang-en/working-groups for in depth information. SuSanA (Sustainable Sanitation Alliance) has formed working groups for a range topics centered on sanitation. Their admirable and hopefully achievable goal is to “…provide deliverables that underline the problems and opportunities …” for these topics. The working groups break out as follows: