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paper: Living conditions and public health status in three urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria

Sat, 25Jan2014 Comments off

from  South East Asia Journal of Public Health  

Living conditions and public health status in three urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria

(available as 6 page pdf below )

Akinwale OP1, Adeneye AK2, Musa AZ3, Oyedeji KS4, Sulyman MA5, Oyefara JO6, Adejoh PE7, Adeneye AA8

1Director of Research (Neglected Tropical Diseases), Head, Molecular Parasitology Research Laboratory, Public Health Division; 2,5Research Fellow, Public Health Division; 3Research Fellow, Clinical Sciences Division; 4Research Fellow, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division; Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria. 6,7Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria. 8Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Lagos metropolis, southwestern Nigeria, is faced with environmental problems ranging from slums and informal settlements, to crime and delinquency. The aim of the study was to explore the demographic characteristics, migra- tion history and living conditions of 2,434 residents of Ajegunle, Ijora Oloye and Makoko in Lagos metropolis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 2010 and October 2012 using a semi-structured questionnaire. Units of analysis used were households. Many of the respondents are low-income earners working in the informal service sectors, and living in unhygienic conditions. The communities are densely populated, with more than five people living in a room. Residents make use of poor and overstressed facilities and inadequate water and electricity supplies. They also lack appropriate garbage disposal facilities and good drainage. Personal hygiene habits are very poor; open defecation in ditches and the lagoon is widely practiced. Respondents are faced with perennial flooding due to blocked drainage systems resulting in a number of diseases, such as malaria, diarrhea, cold and cough. Migra- tion has led to uncontrolled and unplanned developments of slums in metropolitan Lagos. This in turn has led to poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, polluted environment, uncontrolled population growth and health problems in the slums as are observed in this study. There is an urgent need for comprehensive interventions from the government and other organizations to strengthen existing programs to improve the health and quality of life of this vulnerable population.  more….

[PDF] Living conditions and public health status in three urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria

Where do yo shit by @WaterForPeple

Tue, 14Jan2014 Comments off

Great video! by Water For People, sure there are a lot of little details not mentioned, but you can not do better for a 5 minute video.

New Book: Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services – Life-Cycle Cost Approach…

Sun, 12Jan2014 Comments off

There is a new book out that looks worthy of getting your library to order:Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services The Life-Cycle Cost Approach to Planning and Management

Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services
The Life-Cycle Cost Approach to Planning and Management

Hardback: $145.00  978-0-415-82818-5  December 24th 2013

Taylor & Francis Group

“Based on the work of the WASHCost project run by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), this book provides an evaluation of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sectors in the context of developing countries and is the first systematic study of applying the life-cycle cost approach to assessing allocations. It presents unit cost estimates of the WASH sector across geographic locations and technologies, including rural and peri-urban areas, and these are compared with service levels. It analyses detailed data from more than 5000 households across nine agro-climatic zones in Andhra Pradesh State in India. Key issues assessed include poverty analysis of service levels, cost drivers and factors at the village and household level, and governance aspects such as transparency, accountability and value for money in relation to unit costs and service levels.

This is the most comprehensive study of the WASH sector in India and elsewhere that utilises the life-cycle cost approach, along with GIS, econometric modelling and qualitative research methods. Not only does it contribute to research and methodology in this area, but the analysis also provides valuable insights for planners, policy makers and bi-lateral donors. The authors show how the methodology can also be applied in other developing country contexts.”

Contents

  1. Introduction
    • V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
  2. WASH Sector in India: The Policy Context
    • V. Kurian Baby and V. Ratna Reddy
  3. Life-Cycle Cost Approach: An Analytical Framework for WASH Sector
    • V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
  4. Unit Costs and Service Levels: Region and Technology-wise
    • V. Ratna Reddy, M. Venkataswamy and M. Snehalatha
  5. Explaining Inter-Village Variations in Drinking Water Provision: Factors Influencing Costs and Service Levels in Rural Andhra Pradesh
    • V. Ratna Reddy
  6. Rural Sanitation and Hygiene: Economic and Institutional Aspects of Sustainable Services
    • V. Ratna Reddy
  7. Nirmal Gram Puraskar and Sanitation Service Levels: Curse of Slippage
    • M. Snehalatha, V. Anitha Raj, P. Bhushan and M. Venkataswamy
  8. Cost of Provision and Managing WASH Services in Peri-Urban Areas
    • G. Alivelu, V. Ratna Reddy, P. Bhushan and V. Anitha Raj
  9. Skewed and Inequitable Access to Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services
    • M.Snehalatha and James Batchelor
  10. How can Water Security be Improved in Water Scarce Areas of Rural India?
    • Charles Batchelor, James Batchelor and M. Snehalatha
  11. Assessing Progress towards Sustainable Service Delivery in India: Lessons for Rural Water Supply
    • A.J. James
  12. Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP): Understanding Governance in Rural WASH Sector
    • M.V. Rama Chandrudu. Safa Fanaian and R. Subramanyam Naidu
  13. Decentralized Governance and Sustainable Service Delivery: A Case of Nenmeni Rural Water Supply Scheme, Kerala, India
    • P.K. Kurian, V. Kurian Baby and Terry Thomas
  14. Provision of Sustainable WASH Services: Policy Options and Imperatives
    • V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor

Paper: Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria

Sun, 12Jan2014 Comments off

Ayeni A. O.

Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka – Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract

This study assesses the cholera incidence in urban slum in Lagos State, Nigeria with the emphasis on high risk of unimproved sources of water for domestic use and unsanitary environment. The study uses sets of one hundred and twenty structured guided questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on residents’ opinions and experiences on the risk and incidence of cholera in the area. Ten water samples were spatially collected from storage containers of the residents for microbial assessment Results of social survey instrument showed there was cholera incidence and the area is still at high risk as revealed from the result of coliform bacilli with high most probable number (MPN) count found in 6 of the 16 sampled water as well as the faecal coliform found virtually in all sampled water. The study concluded that increasing population of urban centres has been a major contributor to the unsanitary environmental, continuous use of unimproved sources of water as well as environmental health problems such as slum cholera risk and incidence. Therefore, for sustainable friendly and free diseases’ environment provision of habitable and conducive environment for the slum residents should be the priority of government.
more…

New paper: Assessment of women’s participation in community based projects in water & sanitation – Kangundo, Kenya

Thu, 21Nov2013 Comments off

Munuvi, Dorcas Ngina
Date: 2013-11-13

Assessment of women’s participation in community Based projects in upper manza water and sanitation Project in Tala Division, Kangundo District

Abstract:

This study sought to assess the participation of women in community based projects. The major focus was on participation of women in Upper Manza Water and Sanitation Project. The’ study used purposive sampling to select key project officials and local leaders. Other participants were selected through stratified random sampling to give primary data with the qualitative data analyzed using Microsoft word editor. This data was also collated and organized according to the study objectives. Evidence from this study showed that women in Upper Manza Water and Sanitation Project have not fully taken their numerical advantage to assert their contributions in running the project. This is despite they being the main beneficiaries of improved water management in the community; their substantial contributions are largely hidden behind social norms regarding gender roles and relations. It is, therefore, recommended that women’s empowerment must be the concern of both women and men and the degree to which a project is defined as potentially empowering women is shown by the extent to which it addresses women’s practical and immediate needs. more….
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Paper: Estimating child health equity potential of improved sanitation – Nepal

Tue, 24Sep2013 Comments off

paper

Conceptual framework for using LiST to estimate the lives saved from WSS interventions  Acharya et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S25   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S25 Anjali Acharya,  Li Liu, Qingfeng Li and Ingrid K Friberg

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Estimating the child health equity potential of improved sanitation in Nepal

Abstract

Background

Access to improved sanitation plays an important role in child health through its impact on diarrheal mortality and malnutrition. Inequities in sanitation coverage translate into health inequities across socio-economic groups. This paper presents the differential impact on child mortality and diarrheal incidence of expanding sanitation coverage across wealth quintiles in Nepal.

Methods

We modeled three scale up coverage scenarios at the national level and at each of the 5 wealth quintiles for improved sanitation in Nepal in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): equal for all quintiles, realistically pro-poor and ambitiously pro-poor.

Results

The results show that equal improvement in sanitation coverage can save a total of 226 lives (10.7% of expected diarrhea deaths), while a realistically pro-poor program can save 451 child lives (20.5%) and the ambitiously pro-poor program can save 542 lives (24.6%).

Conclusions

Pro-poor policies for expanding sanitation coverage have the ability to reduce population level health inequalities which can translate into reduced child diarrheal mortality.  more….

Get $100K to Reduce the World’s Sh!ts or Other Global Health Idea

Fri, 06Sep2013 Comments off

Show Us a Great Idea, We’ll Show You $100,000

$100,000 Grants Available for New Ideas to: Encourage The World’s Poorest People to Seek Health Care, Develop a New Condom, and  Reduce Diarrhea, One of the Biggest Killers of Children on the Planet

 press release

SEATTLE, September 5, 2013 - The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is accepting applications for the latest  of its Grand Challenges Explorations initiative, a ground-breaking grant program encouraging bold approaches aimed at improving the lives of the world’s poorest people. The simple, online, two-page application is open to creative thinkers from any discipline or any organization.

“We continue to push for a regular stream of fresh ideas to help overcome persistent health and development challenges,” said Chris Wilson, Director of Global Health Discovery & Translational Sciences at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.  “Innovative thinking fuels the progress needed to overcome obstacles the world faces to pull people out of poverty.”

Grand Challenges Explorations encourages proposals from individuals or groups with anything to offer, from anywhere in the world, and seeks to uncover cross-discipline approaches. Since its launch in 2008, the program has funded more than 850 grants in 50 countries.

To learn more about the topics in this round, visit www.grandchallenges.org. Proposals are being accepted through November 12, 2013.

The Gates Foundation and an independent group of reviewers selects the most promising proposals, and grants will be awarded within approximately four months from the proposal submission deadline. Initial grants are $100,000 each. Projects demonstrating potential will have the opportunity to receive additional funding up to $1 million.

###

About the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health with vaccines and other lifesaving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. To learn more, visit www.gatesfoundation.org. You can also join the conversation on Facebook, Twitter, and our blog www.impatientoptimists.org.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
206-709-3400

follow @GatesPress

Beautiful video – dirty water -parallels lives of two “kids” colliding …

Fri, 09Aug2013 Comments off

There are a lot of skeptics’ comments on the video site – normally I will just ignore them as they bate us into fruitless efforts of persuasion and waste time.  This is such a nicely done piece  though,  so I  will encourage you to write a comment and express your appreciation on the
 site here

digging more & giving credit:   this video came from a contact who saw the  story in The Huffington Post  |  By

Cambodia Water Crisis Illustrated In Charity’s Amazing Split-Screen Video

According to the article The video is by Korea Food for the Hungry International (KFHI)

the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise… – a new paper

Thu, 20Jun2013 Comments off

The Journal of Health DiplomacyThere is a new paper from JOURNAL OF HEALTH DIPLOMACY that is worth of taking the time to read. Just the impact to combating Global Health issues associated with and tangential to WASH efforts is huge, not to mention many other areas of global health. This 21 page paper does a great job of addressing / itemizing  the complexities of a problem, that laymen would think could be solved in a fortnight.

Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches

By  Tim K. Mackey*

Abstract
Objective. Counterfeit medicines are a global, multi-faceted, and complex public health problem. Global health diplomacy and cooperative efforts relying on governance systems have been limited in effectively addressing proliferation of this dangerous trade. Methods. This review conducts a comprehensive mapping exercise of governance efforts by international organizations to address counterfeit medicines, including analysis of related international treaties and conventions that may be applicable to anti-counterfeit efforts. This work also reviews governance and global health diplomacy proposals from the literature that addresses counterfeit medicines.
Summary of Findings. A number of international organizations have become active inaddressing the global trade of counterfeit medicines. However, governance approaches by international organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Interpol and the World Customs Organization (WCO), have varied in scope and effectiveness. Treaty instruments with applicability to counterfeit medicines have also not been fully leveraged to combat this issue. Results indicate that a formalized and multi-stakeholder governance mechanism is needed to address the issue. The UNODC is uniquely situated to act as a forum for such a proposal in partnership with other international organizations.
Implications of Findings. Global health diplomacy efforts to combat counterfeit medicines require multi-stakeholder and formalized governance structures that can leverage stakeholder participation and resources. Through cooperative arrangements leveraging the strengths of partners such as UNODC (combating transnational crime), Interpol (lawenforcement purposes), the WCO (customs and border control), and the WHO (for public health science and analysis), the international community can mobilize a coordinated, inclusionary, health diplomacy response to the crisis of global counterfeit medicines.

—-

* Tim Mackey, MAS, is a Senior Research Associate with the Institute of Health Law Studies, California Western School of Law; a Ph.D. Candidate with the Joint Doctoral Program on Global Health, University of California San Diego-San Diego State University; an Investigator with the San Diego Center for Patient Safety, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; a Clinical Instructor (Health Services) with the Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; and the Coordinator for Global Health Research with the Joint Program on Health Policy, University of California, San Diego-California Western School of Law. He is a recipient of the 2012 Horowitz Foundation for Social Policy Grant for graduate researchers, the 2011-2012 Carl L. Alsberg, MD Fellow, Partnership for Safe Medicines and the Rita L. Atkinson Fellow, and gratefully acknowledges that support. E-mail: tmackey@ucsd.edu

Citation: Mackey, T. (2013). Global Health Diplomacy and the Governance of Counterfeit Medicines: A Mapping Exercise of Institutional Approaches. Journal of Health Diplomacy. Published online June 13, 2013.
Editor: Rachel Irwin, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Managing Editor: Mark Pearcey, Carleton University

Published: June 13, 2013
Type: Review Article – Peer Reviewed

Journal of Health Diplomacy:

The Journal of Health Diplomacy (JHD) is an open-access, peer-review journal that publishes editorials, original research papers and commentaries on issues pertaining to the field of health diplomacy.  In keeping with its objective – of generating and disseminating research to ensure foreign policy decisions and discourses on global health are informed by the best available evidence – issues are published twice annually on a thematic basis; themes are selected based on their timeliness and relevance to the field. JHD welcomes contributions from all academic disciplines, including anthropology, geography, history, international relations, legal studies, political science and sociology.

 

1 million dollar prize for reducing childhood mortality

Thu, 25Apr2013 Comments off

The Caplow Children’s Prize is a novel humanitarian contest to save children’s lives.

A $1 million prize will be awarded to the best plan for  preserving the lives of children who would otherwise die before the age of five. All prize finalists will be showcased on our website.

THE PROBLEM:        19,000 children under five die every day.
THE CONTEST:         Seeks to find the best way $1 million might help.
WHO CAN APPLY:    Any person or organization worldwide that:
                                        1) works with or for children
2) could save more children’s lives with more funding
3) could save those lives within two years
4) has a great but realistic plan

HOW TO APPLY:      It’s easy! Fill out a short online form by May 31st: Apply Now

 source / more…

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