Reema Kumari(1), JV Singh(2)
1 Associate Professor,2 Prof. and Head Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, King Georges Medical University, Lucknow
njmsonline.org – National Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences [NJMS]
Introduction Diarrhoeal diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Inspite of many programmes and facilities provided by the government towards prevention of diarrhoeal diseases, it continues to be a threat.
Objective: To study the sanitation and hygiene practices followed by patients of diarrhoea admitted at Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional hospital based study conducted on 300 patients admitted at Infectious Diseases Hospital, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow. Patients were interviewed using a predesigned schedule after taking informed consent. Information regarding general characteristics including source of drinking water, sanitation practices, toilet facility available and mode of refuse disposable were taken. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results: Majority (50.67%) of patients’ uses Municipal water supply/tap water as main source of drinking water and 30% patients uses India mark II hand pump. Around two-third of diarrhoeal patient practices hand washing with soap and water after household activities. Majority (63.33%) do not practices safe methods of storing drinking water, 87.33% uses sanitary latrines while 12.6% still uses open field for defecation. Almost half of the patients uses dustbin for refuse disposal. Use of sanitary latrines and India mark II drinking water was positively associated with higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion: In spite of the improved facilities of water and sanitation provided by the government, there exists a lacuna between its availability and their proper utilisation. This leads on to the burden of diarrhoeal patients on the health sector. Proper awareness regarding safe drinking water and sanitation practices and proper refuse disposal can reduce the diarrhoeal load. view pdf…
WASHLink from time to time likes to briefly note newly publish papers in hopes of giving them a wider audience – let us know if you know of paper that could use this very small piece of publicity…
- new paper: non-clinical interventions for preventable & treatable childhood diseases – what do we know? (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Spurt in diarrhoea cases, Chennai Corpn. lax (thehindu.com)
Developing countries’ own private sector can provide critically-needed services
WASHINGTON, August 29, 2013 – Many of the poorest, un-served people in developing countries, for whom public water and sanitation services are out of reach, could increasingly rely on service provision through the domestic private sector. A new report today released by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) finds that this will not only improve their livelihoods but is also an enormous market potential which waits to be tapped.
Today, 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation and at least 780 million people lack access to safe drinking water. Global estimates of economic losses from the lack of access to water and sanitation are estimated at US$260 billion every year.
“The public sector alone cannot meet this massive challenge; if we want to end extreme poverty by 2030 and boost shared prosperity for the bottom 40%, we will have to scale up water and sanitation access,” said WSP Manager Jae So. “And to do that, both the public and private sector will need to work together.”
One of the most striking findings of Tapping the Markets: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Water and Sanitation for the Poor, is the enormous market potential. Focusing only on Bangladesh, Benin, and Cambodia, about 20 million people are projected to obtain their water from rural piped water schemes by 2025. That is 10 times the current number, a market worth at least US$90 million a year. On the sanitation side, there is a potential US$700 million Bottom of the Pyramid market in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. The current total market for improved on-site sanitation services in these four countries is estimated to be worth US$2.6 billion.
“How to meet the growing demand for these services from poor communities through the domestic private sector is not straight forward,” said Laurence Carter, Director of IFC’s Public Private Partnerships Transaction Advisory Services. “But private firms have an incredible market opportunity to serve the base of the pyramid, which makes up the largest percentage of the population in these countries. This can not only yield significant development impacts, but also potential profits and sustainable businesses.”
he results of the study offer new solutions to prevent the thousands of daily child deaths and hundreds of billions of dollars in annual economic losses caused by lack of access to water and toilets. It takes a hard look at the challenges faced in tapping the business opportunities in developing countries by private firms willing to make the commitment to reaching the poorest people.
Three areas of focus that will strengthen the market for sanitation solutions and small-scale, rural and peri-urban water systems include:
- delivering value to customers at affordable prices
- building mutual confidence between the private sector and this market segment
- developing a favorable investment climate
While there is no silver bullet to overcome investment barriers, a number of options are available to address these constraints and build market opportunities. The report outlines a number of possible solutions, ranging from better understanding of consumer preferences to policy reforms to capacity building for smaller firms that can then invest in poor, rural and peri-urban areas. As one example, consumers prefer a turn-key sanitation solution, but individual companies typically work on only one part of the puzzle: latrine components, construction, or pit-emptying. If consumers were offered a “one-stop” shop by firms that also had the financial, business and marketing knowledge to grow their business, the use of these services would expand significantly.
Referring to the proposition that the base of the economic pyramid represents both a market and development opportunity, So said, “This idea that businesses can be part of the solution is an attractive one. The study takes a hard look at this proposition and asks sobering questions so that we can find answers that could work at scale.”
WSP is a multi-donor partnership created in 1978 and administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services. WSP’s donors include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and the World Bank. For more information, please visit www.wsp.org
IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector. Working with private enterprises in more than 100 countries, we use our capital, expertise, and influence to help eliminate extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity. In FY13, our investments climbed to an all-time high of nearly $25 billion, leveraging the power of the private sector to create jobs and tackle the world’s most pressing development challenges. For more information, visit www.ifc.org
The report will be presented at World Water Week in Stockholm on September 3, 2013.
For a copy of the conference edition, please click below:
- Gates foundation to spur toilet revolution in China (wantchinatimes.com)
- WaterAid to use ‘World Toilet Day’ to highlight Ghana’s sanitation problem (ghanabusinessnews.com)
- The Post 2015 Water Thematic Consultation Report (post2015.org)
- Dilemmas of a Water Funder (pndblog.typepad.com)
The CBT is the only portable, self-contained, household level water quality test that detects and quantifies E. coli levels in the World Health Organization 100mL standard sample, requires no electricity or lab, provides built-in decontamination and requires no incubator at temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius. It eliminates costs for refrigeration, sample transportation, lab sample analysis and processing and highly trained, specialized technicians.
Compact and self-contained, the CBT provides microbial water testing in a few simple steps with easy-to-score, visual, color change results.
The CBT has many benefits for water, sanitation and hygiene programs:
+ Provides quantitative water quality results based on the World Health Organization’s risk categories
+ Enables water quality testing even in low resource and disaster settings
+ Allows individuals and communities to make informed decisions about the safety of their drinking water and actions needed to improve water quality
+ Eliminates costs for refrigeration, sample transportation, lab sample analysis and processing, and highly trained, specialized technicians
+ Removes indirect costs associated with other water testing products such as labor costs that address product requirements, recleaning and sterilization of reusable testing components, required supporting equipment and excessive test waste
+ Expands and improves efficiency of water testing programs
Testing water quality is an essential component of any water, sanitation and hygiene program. The CBT now makes it possible for anyone, in any location or environment, to detect fecal bacteria in drinking water, determine if their water is safe to drink and monitor water quality.
Dr. Mark Sobsey , the creator of the CBT, is an authority on water quality and a distinguished professor at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. “It’s impossible to tell if water poses a health risk just by looking at it,” says Sobsey. “Drinking water has to be tested and monitored on an ongoing basis to insure continued safety. In developing countries and rural areas, the ability for local authorities and inhabitants to test water is severely limited. Yet a day without safe water is a day of being at risk of waterborne disease.
“Drinking water quality test kits should be accessible and easy to use, so that people can be informed and empowered to take appropriate action when their drinking water poses a risk to their health.”
Already used throughout the world, the CBT provides quantitative drinking water quality test results based on the World Health Organization risk categories and country standards. The CBT has been tested extensively by third parties against other standard testing methods and provides results on par with more complicated, expensive and less portable tests.
Aquagenx customers include major universities, global NGOs and government entities, and private companies focused on water quality testing, provision of safe household and community drinking water and water research.
Aquagenx, LLC is a social enterprise formed around years of research and development at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. Led by Dr. Mark Sobsey and Dr. Ku McMahan, Aquagenx developed and commercialized the Compartment Bag Test (CBT) to improve monitoring of drinking water in low resource settings and help prevent the millions of deaths that occur annually due to contaminated drinking water.
The CBT is the only portable, self-contained, household level water quality test that detects and quantifies E. coli levels in a WHO 100mL standard sample, requires no electricity or lab, provides built-in decontamination and requires no incubator at temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius. It eliminates costs for refrigeration, sample transportation, lab sample analysis and processing and highly trained, specialized technicians.
Website: www.aquagenx.com (source of both images)
Aquagenx, LLC | (on site of Campus Y)
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2.4 billion people will lack improved sanitation in 2015
World will miss MDG target
GENEVA/NEW YORK, 13 May 2013 – Some 2.4 billion people – one-third of the world’s population – will remain without access to improved sanitation in 2015, according to a joint WHO/UNICEF report issued today.
The report, entitled PRogress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water 2013 Update, warns that, at the current rate of progress, the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the proportion of the 1990 population without sanitation will be missed by eight per cent – or half a billion people.
While UNICEF and WHO announced last year that the MDG drinking water target had been met and surpassed by 2010, the challenge to improve sanitation and reach those in need has led to a consolidated call for action to accelerate progress.
“There is an urgent need to ensure all the necessary pieces are in place – political commitment, funding, leadership – so the world can accelerate progress and reach the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target,” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director for Public Health and Environment. “The world can turn around and transform the lives of millions that still do not have access to basic sanitation. The rewards would be immense for health, ending poverty at its source, and well-being.”
The report echoes the urgent call to action by United Nations Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson for the world community to combine efforts and end open defecation by 2025. With less than three years to go to reach the MDG deadline WHO and UNICEF call for a final push to meet the sanitation target.
“This is an emergency no less horrifying than a massive earthquake or tsunami,” said Sanjay Wijesekera, global head of UNICEF’s water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme. “Every day hundreds of children are dying; every day thousands of parents mourn their sons and daughters. We can and must act in the face of this colossal daily human tragedy.”
Among the key findings from the latest 2011 data, the report highlights:
- Almost two-thirds (64 per cent) of the world’s population had access to improved sanitation facilities, an increase of almost 1.9 billion people since 1990.
- Approximately 2.5 billion people lacked access to an improved sanitation facility. Of these, 761 million use public or shared sanitation facilities and 693 million use facilities that do not meet minimum standards of hygiene.
- In 2011, 1 billion people still defecated in the open. Ninety per cent of all open defecation takes place in rural areas.
- By the end of 2011, 89 per cent of the world population used an improved drinking-water source, and 55 per cent had a piped supply on premises. This left an estimated 768 million people without improved sources for drinking water, of whom 185 million relied on surface water for their daily needs.
- There continues to be a striking disparity between those living in rural areas and those who live in cities. Urban dwellers make up three-quarters of those with access to piped water supplies at home. Rural communities comprise 83 per cent of the global population without access to improved drinking- water source and 71 per cent of those living without sanitation.
Faster progress on sanitation is possible, the two organizations say. The report summarizes the shared vision of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector including academia, human rights and global monitoring communities for a post-2015 world where:
- No one should be defecating in the open
- Everyone should have safe water, sanitation and hygiene at home
- All schools and health centres should have water, sanitation and hygiene
- Water, sanitation and hygiene should be sustainable
- Inequalities in access should be eliminated
Download the entire report and get more information at:
About the JMP
The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring global progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) relating to access to drinking water and sanitation. The JMP data helps draw connections between access to clean water and private sanitation facility and quality of life.
The World Health Organization is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends. From its inception, WHO has recognized the importance of water and sanitation. Visit www.who.int for more information.
UNICEF works in more than 190 countries and territories to help children survive and thrive, from early childhood through adolescence. The world’s largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments.
Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS), now being supported by UNICEF in 50 countries around the world, including crucial ones in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, have led to more than 39,000 communities, with a total population of over 24 million people, being declared free of open defecation within the last five years.
For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: www.unicef.org.
For further information, please contact:
Rita Ann Wallace, Communications Officer, UNICEF New York,
Tel: + 1 212 326 7586 / Mobile: + 917 213 4034, firstname.lastname@example.org
Nada Osseiran, Communications Officer, WHO Geneva,
Tel: + 4122 791 4475 / Mobile: + 4179 445 1624, email@example.com
- When Sanitation Does Not Have Clear Institutional Home or Accountability, Progress Lags: UN Deputy Secretary-General (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Everyone needs a place to go (thehindu.com)
- Third World Problems (cameronkoizumi.wordpress.com)
- Global Health Plan Aims to End a Third of Childhood Deaths (ipsnews.net)
- Diarrhoea kills 10,000 under five children in Ghana annually – Minister (ghanabusinessnews.com)
- Post-2015 development agenda must reflect all dimensions of sustainability (guardian.co.uk)
A quick 90 second video about an effort to map sanitation in Rawalpindi Pakistan
Faisal Chohan, a Senior TED Fellow and TEDxIslamabad organizer, will now continue his mapping work with a related mission: Improving sanitation in order to prevent the spread of cholera—a bacterial infection in the small intestine, primarily caused by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by feces of an infected person. The rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance that results from cholera can lead to death if left untreated. Read more on TEDx….
- pakreport.org The Organization doing this and other work
- Saafpindi project Page for Mapping Project itself
- parkreport blog
- Fasil Chohan profile on wethedata.org
- Excelent source for more details by Faissal on GlobalGiving page
Other useful links
Scaling out Sanitation in Rawalpindi, Pakistan 2009 article by Pakistan Institute for Environment-Development Action Research (PIEDAR).
In the tradition of our TEDxYouthDay, TEDxChange, and TEDxWomen initiatives, comes TEDxCity2.0: A day of urban inspiration. 28 TEDx communities around the world participated in TEDxCity2.0 day on October 13, 2012. We will host our next event in 2013 to share the powerful narratives of urban innovators and organizers, stewards and artists, builders and tastemakers. The TEDx platform will harness the power of people across the globe to encourage them to host a TEDx event, themed “City 2.0. source & more…
Cynthia talks about the often underestimated problem of water weight and how this problem is preventing millions of women from educating and empowering themselves. She points about the fact that ‘water is heavy’ using real life examples in Rajasnthan, India. Not only is water heavy but also time consuming and limiting women of important opportunities. She talks about her invention “wello” where she & her team have reinvented the wheel. She brings the water wheel on stage, explaining the design and features in this product, allowing the audience to see this easy to use, yet immensely life changing water wheel.
Cynthia’s Profile on UnreasonableNetwork -(really, a good site)
Other drums solutions
- Wello’s WaterWheel – Rolling Towards Healthier Communities (learningaboutsocialenterprise.wordpress.com)
- Social Entrepreneurs That Innovate Around Women And Clean Water (siliconvalleywatcher.com)
- Q-Drum re-invents the wheel by adding water to solve a water transport crisis for the world’s poor.
The talk is titled: Wastewater, a resource or a weapon of mass destruction?
Valérie shows us how to turn recycled wastewater into a commoditized resource, improve water sanitation, provide efficient water usage, and reduce price volatility.
Valérie Issumo is the CEO of Prana Sustainable Water company (http://www.pranasustainablewater.ch) . An economist, she worked for 15 years as a soft commodities trader and as a trainer in Belgium, Uruguay, Cameroon and Switzerland. Throughout her career she has fought for sustainability and risk mitigation in the entire value chain of traded goods. She is a university lecturer and also a consultant for food security, socially responsible investments, pricing ecosystems and the assessment of water interdependencies. Valérie holds an MBA, has studied at various international water centres, and was a recipient of the Prize of the Belgian Minister of Foreign Trade.
Prana Sustainable Water is acting for the following challenges:
- Reducing the 80% untreated wastewater (UNEP) by matching offers and pre-paid demands of treated water allowing to finance sanitation and restore the public water quality as common good for not hindering growth and strategies.
- Water is the underlying commodity of every goods or services: please check www.cdproject.net/water and www.waterfootprint.org: : Prana Sustainable Water has designed Ethical Water Titles© – futures contracts – to commoditize treated wastewater as tradable resource on the Ethical Water Exchange platform or commodities exchange for water procurement and price security.
- Scaling-up clean technologies for wastewater:the members of Prana Sustainable Water Club active in wastewater can benefit organized markets through solvent demands of recycled water via Ethical Water Titles© allowing to leapfrog the leverage effects solving simultaneously water, health, economic, environmental and social issues.
- Offset water consumption : wastewater can be recycled on an infinite basis. Prana Sustainable Water boosts responsible productions or services prioritizing reuse water with the automatic respect of the Water Exploitation Index growingblue.com and storing part of recycled wastewater into green water bnks© for philanthropy, reforestation and production of green/rain water, energy, public services like fires..etc…
- Defense and food security Our motto is to incentivize responsible water use to produce:
- what makes sense (prioritizing commoditized recycled water from wastewater for Human Rights, for water footprints of functional food or with high nutritional value and ecosystems services),
- where it makes sense (according to the impact),
- how it makes sense (with treated wastewater and sludge energy).
Prana Sustainable Water site pages
UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation Catarina de Albuquerque has called on states to address the issue of stigmatization of groups and communities because of lack to water and sanitation.
She presented a report to the UN Human Rights Council focusing on the links between stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation.
The 22 page PDF report “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque | Stigma and the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation“
Summary from Report:
“The Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation submits the present report in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 16/2. She focuses on the links between stigma and the human rights framework as it relates to water and sanitation. She has found that stigma, as a deeply entrenched social and cultural phenomenon, lies at the root of many human rights violations and results in entire population groups being disadvantaged and excluded.
The Special Rapporteur seeks to convey an understanding of stigma and to elucidate its drivers. She links stigma explicitly to water, sanitation and hygiene before examining different manifestations of stigma. She situates stigma in the human rights framework considering, in particular, human dignity, the human rights to water, sanitation, non-discrimination and equality, the prohibition of degrading treatment, and the right to privacy. Based on this analysis, the Special Rapporteur seeks to identify appropriate strategies for preventing and responding to stigma from a human rights perspective, before concluding with a set of recommendations. She emphasizes that States cannot fully realize the human rights to water and sanitation without addressing stigma as a root cause of discrimination and other human rights violations.”
- Understanding stigma and its drivers
- Stigma and its links to water, sanitation and hygiene
- Manifestations of stigma
- Situating stigma in the human rights framework
- Identifying appropriate strategies for prevention and response
- Conclusions and recommendations
Strategies for prevention and response detailed in the report include
- Participation and empowerment
- Awareness-raising to break taboos and challenge stereotypes
- Legislative, policy and institutional measures
- Adopting targeted interventions
- Adopting technical measures .
- Ensuring access to justice
- California law on human right to water sets example for others (bikyamasr.com)
- Water Makes Waves at UN General Assembly Debates (circleofblue.org)
Science, Policy and Innovation
Bringing together academic research with policy, practice and networking events
The 2012 Water and Health Conference: Science, Policy and Innovation, jointly organized by the Institute for the Environment and the Water Institute at UNC, will consider drinking water supply, sanitation, hygiene and water resources in both the developing and developed worlds with a strong public health emphasis.
The 2012 Water and Health Conference: Science, Policy and Innovation is accompanied by several exciting events before and after the conference. Don’t miss the opportunity to network with and learn from the unique array of national and international professionals!
- Bai Mass Taal- Executive Secretary of the African Ministers Council on Water
- Tessie San Martin- CEO of Plan International USA
- William G. Ross- former North Carolina Secretary for the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources and Visiting Professor at the Nicholas Institute for the Environment
- Letitia Obeng – Chair of the Global Water Partnership
- Charles Fishman- author of The Big Thirst
- Tom Earnhardt – producer and host of Exploring North Carolina
2012 Main Conference Themes:
- Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainability
- Ecosystem Protection and Drinking Water Safety
- WaSH and Child Health
- Southeastern US Water Challenges
- Beyond 2015: Realizing Universal Access and Human Rights
- Water, Energy and Climate
- Making Sanitation Benefits Achievable and Sustainable for All
- Household-centered WaSH