Here are a half-a-dozen…well 3/4 of a dozen infographics on WATSAN/WASH/sanitation
There are more on our Pinterest WATSAN board
From SuSanA web page:
- Capacity development for sustainable sanitation
- Financial and economic analysis
- Links between sanitation, climate change and renewable energies
- Sanitation systems and technology options
- Productive sanitation and the link to food security
- Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities
- Sustainable sanitation for schools
- Integrating a gender perspective in sustainable sanitation
- Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations
- Sanitation as a business
- Public awareness raising and sanitation marketing
- Operation and maintenance of sustainable sanitation systems
- Sustainable sanitation and groundwater protection
The document is available as a single 116 page pdf or two pdfs breaking the dock in half.
It is filled with hot links to a wealth of reference material. This alone will make the document invaluable. All urls are written out so links retain their value in a paper copy.
The list of contributors is is huge. A nice thing is the main authors provide hot email links at the end of each of the 13 sections so you can easily contact them.
The only problem with such a beautiful document is there is no traditional table of contents or index.
Executive summary from the pdf
“The target audience for this document includes a wide range of readers who are interested in aspects of sustainable sanitation and their links with other environmental and development topics. Possible readers include practitioners, programme managers, engineers, students, researchers, lecturers, journalists, local government staff members, policy makers and their advisers or entrepreneurs. The emphasis of this document is on developing countries and countries in transition.
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose, informal network of organisations such as NGOs, private companies, governmental and research institutions as well as multilateral organisations that aim to contribute towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by promoting sustainable sanitation.
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human excreta and domestic wastewater. Personal hygiene practices like hand washing with soap are also part of sanitation. Sanitation also includes solid waste management and drainage but these two aspects are not the focus of this publication. In order for a sanitation system to be sustainable, it has to be economically viable, socially acceptable, technically and institutionally appropriate, and protect the environment and natural resources.
SuSanA contributes to the policy dialogue towards sustainable sanitation through its resource materials and a lively debate amongst the members during meetings, in the working groups, bilaterally, through joint publications and via various communication tools like the open online discussion forum. This publication showcases the broad knowledge base and state of discussions on relevant topics of sustainable
sanitation. All of the working groups have published one or two factsheets providing a broad guidance relating to their specific thematic area.
The 11 working groups of SuSanA have the following titles:
WG 1 Capacity development
WG 2 Finance and economics
WG 3 Renewable energies and climate change
WG 4 Sanitation systems, technology, hygiene and health
WG 5 Food security and productive sanitation systems
WG 6 Sustainable sanitation for cities and planning
WG 7 Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)
WG 8 Emergency and reconstruction situations
WG 9 Sanitation as a business and public awareness
WG 10 Operation and maintenance
WG 11 Groundwater protection
Due to the inter-relationships between the working groups, the factsheets are inter-related and where appropriate, are cross-referenced. The factsheets relate to different parts of the “sanitation chain”, which consists of user interface, conveyance, collection/storage, treatment, reuse or disposal. We have attempted to visualise the linkages between the different working groups and the sanitation chain in the following schematic. There are some working groups which are dealing with overarching themes and these have been placed inthe centre of the schematic.”
- SuSanA – Compilation of 13 factsheets on key sustainable sanitation topics (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Humanitarian crises and sustainable sanitation: lessons from Eastern Chad (washafrica.wordpress.com)
- Time to Get Our Sh*t Together (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Sanitation at the 4th Africa Water Week, 14-18 May 2012, Cairo, Egypt (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
The Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia report came out in June 2010.
The Study Starts of stating the fact that “Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2010 data indicate that around 38% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation services and that open defecation remains a widespread practice for over 60 million Indonesians. “
With a majority of Indonesia being Muslims the study include a a look at Muslim teaching on the subject of sanitation. “The study objective was to identify the social, religious, cultural and gender-related factors which inﬂuence rural people’s attitudes towards urine and excreta-based fertilizers in general and the EcoSan urine diversion system in particular. It doe not pretend to be anything but a modest study: ” the study does not seek to be a comprehensive reﬂection of the whole of Indonesia. Instead, it provides a preliminary assessment of attitudes towards EcoSan, and identiﬁ es some key drivers and inhibitors…” It survey 350 people in 5 out of 33 provinces included Muslims, Christians and respondents with traditional
beliefs. Four producers and retailers of excreta and urine based fertilizer were also identiﬁ ed and interviewed.
One of the key finding come in this paragraph:
“The study data show that this is not only a Muslim religious objection,
but that Christians also consider it difﬁcult to keep the excreta dry by not
using water above the disposal hole. While the percentage of Muslims who
considered it difﬁcult to keep the disposal hole dry was fairly constant, the
percentage of Christians who felt this way varied from 35% in Kulon Progo,
Central Java to 78% in East Sumba. This conﬁrms the assumption that
use of water for cleansing, where available, is also an Indonesian cultural
behavior that inhibits the use of a toilet system requiring dry storage. “
The study reports the researchers’ findings that more than “…80% of the respondents are willing to use urine or feces-based fertilizer.” The report goes on to say a similar number are willing to consume products from the fields using compost based fertilizer. The hard part, the study states, is only 50% of the people surveyed are will to to be involved in processing the urine and feces to make the compost. (I would like to know how this compares to other locations around the world 50% Seems high- a positive rather than negative – )
The study goes on to look at the roles/ potential roles men and women of a family unit have on
- selecting fertilizer for crops, and for selection installing,toilets for the family.
- selecting toilets installing them and composting waste from them.
The conclusions are complex. Hopefully organizations that want to just plop down ecosan units all anywhere in the will carefully read this short but informative report in its entirety. We must truly understand the people, if we / they are to have success with ecosan or any other viable alternative!
INTRODUCTION: ECOSAN IN INDONESIA
- Objective of the Study
- Consideration of EcoSan as a Sanitation Option
DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER EXISTS ACROSS RELIGIONS AND REGIONS
- Excreta-based fertilizers are still a sensitive issue for some
RESERVATIONS ABOUT USING ECOSAN TOILETS
- Gender Differences
IS HUMAN EXCRETA-BASED FERTILIZER NAJIS?
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) “…a multi-donor partnership administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.”
The research was carried out by Entin Sriani Muslim assisted by Ana Nurhasanah in 2009. This learning
note was co-authored by Martin Albrecht, Isabel Blackett, and Ikabul Arianto and peer reviewed by
Eduardo Perez and Jeremy Colin.
Document type Pdf with search-able / selectable text. 4 pages Includes images and graphs
The International Federation International Federation Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) realease a 24 page report titled Haiti: From sustaining lives to sustainable solutions –the challenge of sanitation in July 2010 Special report, six months on • July 2010
Contents are follows
- Top line messages
- Before the earthquake Tentative steps in the face of chronic under-development
- It’s a dirty job,but somebody has to do it - Case Study
- Six months on: notable achievements, but substitution is not the answer
- Hygiene promotion at Camp La Piste Case Study
- Sanitation technicians –doing the work that nobody else wants to do Case Study
- The challenges of the next 6–12 months Taking the frst steps towards sustainable sanitation solutions
- Making it fun to learn about hygiene Case Study
- Cleaning up the camps Case Study
- The next ten years Innovation is the key
- Haiti earthquake operation in figures
The Top line message is as follows
- Sanitation saves lives. Without it, there is a risk of a secondary disaster, in which the people who have survived the earthquake could succumb to preventable disease.
- The IFRC is calling on the international community to recognize sanitation as one of the absolute priorities in Haiti’s reconstruction, and to ensure that sufficient resources are devoted to it.
- The current situation is not sustainable. The IFRC and other agencies providing water and sanitation services on behalf of the Haitian authorities are currently stretched beyond their capacity and mandate.
- Haitian authorities must receive funding and support to build their capacities to provide the improved sanitation services the Haitian population needs and deserves.
- Access to appropriate sanitation is also a dignity and protection issue, particularly for women and children. Community participation is essential to identify ways to ensure that people feel safe when using sanitation facilities – toilets and showers – both at night and in the day.
- Innovative solutions for future sanitation provision are needed. For example research is needed into potential solutions such as small bore sewerage, large-scale composting of waste, or
establishing biogas production.
They go on to say in (footnotes are remove here but are in original pdf)
“…Six months on, a large proportion of sanitation services (and two-thirds of the water trucking) continue to be provided by international partners. This is notsustainable. The IFRC calls upon the international community to recognize sanitation as one of the absolute priorities in Haiti’s reconstruction and ensure that sufficient resources are devoted to it….”
“…Before the earthquake, safe water access was amongst the lowest in Latin America and the Caribbean, nwhilst access to sanitation was amongst the lowest
in the world… “
“…Whilst the IFRC works mainly in larger camps and neighbourhoods, other agencies and NGOs are working in small camps that are not accessible to
larger de-sludging machines. They have also taken this “improve on what exists” approach, consulting with camp dwellers to learn and build upon their own practices. They are currently piloting a number of different options. These include field-testing the distribution and safe collection of biodegradable bags in locations where there appears to be no other viable solution (for example, no space for more conventional toilets), installing toilets that use little or no water, and investigating options to introduce manual de-sludging pumps that would improve upon the bayacou system of toilet clearance used prior to the earthquake…..”
“There are huge challenges in meeting the long-term sanitation needs for Haiti, but at the same time great opportunities exist to make substantial improvements
to the sanitary environment of Port-au-Prince and beyond. The key is to support the Haitian authorities in investigating and putting in place pioneering sanitation solutions. The crucial starting point is to ensure that equal importance, support and funding is channeled to sanitation as well as the provision of water in tackling the long-term rebuilding of Haiti…”
“…Investment in formative research is needed now in areas such as the barriers and motivational factors to achieving improved sanitation within Haitian society,
the ability and willingness to pay for it, and whether there is an openness to adopt innovations such as the agricultural use of human-derived fertiliser or the conversion of excreta into energy through biogas production. All these issues must be properly researched, together with a better understanding in how to carry out urban mass sanitation, given that most experience to date stems from rural and peri-urban situations.
Haiti is still in the first phase of recovering from the devastating effects of the 12 January earthquake, but now is the time to look forward – to the next six months and also to the next 10 or 20 years. The decisions made now will have the most profound influence in helping the country deliver a prosperous future for its citizens. Making sure that sanitation is given equal priority and funding
to the provision of water – and seizing opportunities to put in place innovative long-term approaches to solid and human waste management in Haiti requires immediate action, research and planning.”
here is a great set of Ecosan /”ecological sanitation” posters published on slideshare
The proceedings from the DRY TOILET 2009 conference held by Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland are available They are a great resource and available at http://huussi.net/tapahtumat/DT2009/full.html
The Suomi version of the home page is http://www.huussi.net/
|1 PROMOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ORDER TO
Namibia, Finland, Tajikistan, Nepal, Uganda
|2 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY
||Philippines, India, Argentina, Belarus, Nigeria|
|3 IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN
|4a PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA|
|4b PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF
Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso,
| 5 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL
|6 GENDER ASPECTS
RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS
Bangladesh and others
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS continues
Ethiopia, Inner Mongolia, China
Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania,Kenya, India
|Side event SUSTAINABLE
SANITATION FOR TOURISM AND RECREATION
Republic of Karelia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland
Uganda: Cost of Eco-San Toilet Lowered
Gerald Tenywa 18 November 2009 AllAfrica.com
Kampala — THE cost of the ecological sanitation (eco-san) toilets has been lowered in a bid to promote their use countrywide. The move is also aimed at encouraging farmers to use human waste as a fertiliser to improve agricultural productivity. Water state minister Jennifer Namuyangu said the availability of local materials to construct the eco-san toilets has helped to reduce the cost from about sh2m to only sh200,000. [$110 us dollars]….
Here is great video showing how the EcoSan toilet works, stressing:
1 You don’t need water to us an EcoSan toilet, saving a precious resource
2 There is a huge benefit to use urine as a fertilizer
The video the workings of toilet itself. What I find wonderful is that this video explains & shows the full sequence of steps taken to after urination to get the urine onto the the field as fertilizer. This is followed by a wonderful comparison of crop yields comparing side by side fields, on fertilized with urine the other fertilized with commercial fertilizer. The fields fertilized with urine did better than the commercial fertilizers and at NO COST!!!! The video is in English and the location is Ethiopia. Several local experts are use to explain particular points.
Title Urine Diversion Toilets: advantages and use agriculture
a brief Ecosan Documentary by Andreas Wilkin c 2008
produced for the ROSA project
contact Franziska Meinzinger f.meinzinger @ tu-harburg.de
Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg TUHH
(Hamburg University of Technology)
WASHLink Notes: addition resources:
other related YouTube videos (using following search terms)
|ecosan urine||ecosan construction||ecosan watsan|
|ecosan design materials||ecosan fertilizer||ecosan toilet|