A quick 90 second video about an effort to map sanitation in Rawalpindi Pakistan
Faisal Chohan, a Senior TED Fellow and TEDxIslamabad organizer, will now continue his mapping work with a related mission: Improving sanitation in order to prevent the spread of cholera—a bacterial infection in the small intestine, primarily caused by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by feces of an infected person. The rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance that results from cholera can lead to death if left untreated. Read more on TEDx….
- pakreport.org The Organization doing this and other work
- Saafpindi project Page for Mapping Project itself
- parkreport blog
- Fasil Chohan profile on wethedata.org
- Excelent source for more details by Faissal on GlobalGiving page
Other useful links
Scaling out Sanitation in Rawalpindi, Pakistan 2009 article by Pakistan Institute for Environment-Development Action Research (PIEDAR).
In the tradition of our TEDxYouthDay, TEDxChange, and TEDxWomen initiatives, comes TEDxCity2.0: A day of urban inspiration. 28 TEDx communities around the world participated in TEDxCity2.0 day on October 13, 2012. We will host our next event in 2013 to share the powerful narratives of urban innovators and organizers, stewards and artists, builders and tastemakers. The TEDx platform will harness the power of people across the globe to encourage them to host a TEDx event, themed “City 2.0. source & more…
A great video to watch while waiting to see the recording of Rose George when she spoke at Ted 2013
Rose George thinks, researches, writes and talks about sanitation. Diarrhea is a weapon of mass destruction, says the UK-based journalist and author, and a lack of access to toilets is at the root of our biggest public health crisis. In 2012, two out of five of the world’s population had nowhere sanitary to go.
The key to turning around this problem is to “stop putting the toilet behind a locked door,” says George. Let’s drop the pretense of “water-related diseases” and call out the cause of myriad afflictions around the world — “poop-related diseases” that are preventable with a basic toilet. Once we do, we can start using human waste for good.
George explores the problem in her book The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters and in a fabulous special issue of Colors magazine called “Shit: A Survival Guide.”
Related Links for Rose George
- Go home and talk s***: Rose George at TED2013
- Contact info , book info and a whole lot more on her web site….
- Animated homage to her Book: The Indoorfins present: The Big Necessity :-)
Other powerful TED , TEDX, TED-Ed links
- TEDxYYC – “David Damberger – Learning from Failure” -Wonderful Reflection on his WATSAN Experience
- TEDx HOW NEXTDROP IS USING CELL PHONES, CROWDSOURCING TO GET WATER TO THE THIRSTY.
- TEDxBerlin Noa Lerner:X-runner. Sanitation Social Business
- TEDxAmsterdamWomen Anjali Sarker – Toilet+ overcoming my childhood fear TEDX event
- Revolutionizing Sanitation in Developing Nations: Yu-Ling Cheng at TEDxYouth@Toronto
- Where we get our fresh water – Christiana Z. Peppard TED-Ed
- Turning recycled wastewater into a commoditized resource : Valérie Issumo at TEDxLausanne
- The Wello Water Wheel Story : Cynthia Koenig at TEDxGateway
This is a Wonderful 39 page Technical document on covering all aspect of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.
- Dr V M Chariar
- S Ramesh Sakthivel
This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.
Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details
- Waterless Urinals
- 1.1 Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
- 1.2 Demerits of Conventional Urinals
- Functioning of Waterless Urinals
- 2.1 Sealant Liquid Traps
- 2.2 Membrane Traps
- 2.3 Biological Blocks
- 2.4 Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
- 2.5 Other Types of odour Traps
- 2.6 Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
- Innovative Urinal Designs
- 3.1 Public Urinal Kiosk 21
- 3.2 Green Waterless Urinal
- 3.3 Self Constructed Urinals
- Urine Diverting Toilets
- Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
- 5.1 Safe Application of Urine 3
- 5.2 Methods of Urine Application
- Other Applications of Urine
- Challenges and the Way Forward
- References and Further Reading
- Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
- Average chemical composition of fresh urine
- Recommended dose of urine for various crops
- Waterless urinals for men
- Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
- Sealant liquid based odour trap
- Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
- Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
- LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
- Biological blocks
- Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
- Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
- Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
- Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
- Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
- Deep injection of urine using soil injector
- Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
- Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
- Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
- Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.” more on Zerodor…
Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.
In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.
- UNICEF Report Highlights India’s Water Management Woes (circleofblue.org)
- SANITATION: Urban water woes (irinnews.org)
- From Water Problems to Water Solutions (slideshare.net)
- Lack of toilets, clean water costs world $260 bln a year – Liberian president (trust.org)
From SuSanA web page:
- Capacity development for sustainable sanitation
- Financial and economic analysis
- Links between sanitation, climate change and renewable energies
- Sanitation systems and technology options
- Productive sanitation and the link to food security
- Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities
- Sustainable sanitation for schools
- Integrating a gender perspective in sustainable sanitation
- Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations
- Sanitation as a business
- Public awareness raising and sanitation marketing
- Operation and maintenance of sustainable sanitation systems
- Sustainable sanitation and groundwater protection
The document is available as a single 116 page pdf or two pdfs breaking the dock in half.
It is filled with hot links to a wealth of reference material. This alone will make the document invaluable. All urls are written out so links retain their value in a paper copy.
The list of contributors is is huge. A nice thing is the main authors provide hot email links at the end of each of the 13 sections so you can easily contact them.
The only problem with such a beautiful document is there is no traditional table of contents or index.
Executive summary from the pdf
“The target audience for this document includes a wide range of readers who are interested in aspects of sustainable sanitation and their links with other environmental and development topics. Possible readers include practitioners, programme managers, engineers, students, researchers, lecturers, journalists, local government staff members, policy makers and their advisers or entrepreneurs. The emphasis of this document is on developing countries and countries in transition.
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose, informal network of organisations such as NGOs, private companies, governmental and research institutions as well as multilateral organisations that aim to contribute towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by promoting sustainable sanitation.
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human excreta and domestic wastewater. Personal hygiene practices like hand washing with soap are also part of sanitation. Sanitation also includes solid waste management and drainage but these two aspects are not the focus of this publication. In order for a sanitation system to be sustainable, it has to be economically viable, socially acceptable, technically and institutionally appropriate, and protect the environment and natural resources.
SuSanA contributes to the policy dialogue towards sustainable sanitation through its resource materials and a lively debate amongst the members during meetings, in the working groups, bilaterally, through joint publications and via various communication tools like the open online discussion forum. This publication showcases the broad knowledge base and state of discussions on relevant topics of sustainable
sanitation. All of the working groups have published one or two factsheets providing a broad guidance relating to their specific thematic area.
The 11 working groups of SuSanA have the following titles:
WG 1 Capacity development
WG 2 Finance and economics
WG 3 Renewable energies and climate change
WG 4 Sanitation systems, technology, hygiene and health
WG 5 Food security and productive sanitation systems
WG 6 Sustainable sanitation for cities and planning
WG 7 Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)
WG 8 Emergency and reconstruction situations
WG 9 Sanitation as a business and public awareness
WG 10 Operation and maintenance
WG 11 Groundwater protection
Due to the inter-relationships between the working groups, the factsheets are inter-related and where appropriate, are cross-referenced. The factsheets relate to different parts of the “sanitation chain”, which consists of user interface, conveyance, collection/storage, treatment, reuse or disposal. We have attempted to visualise the linkages between the different working groups and the sanitation chain in the following schematic. There are some working groups which are dealing with overarching themes and these have been placed inthe centre of the schematic.”
- SuSanA – Compilation of 13 factsheets on key sustainable sanitation topics (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Humanitarian crises and sustainable sanitation: lessons from Eastern Chad (washafrica.wordpress.com)
- Time to Get Our Sh*t Together (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Sanitation at the 4th Africa Water Week, 14-18 May 2012, Cairo, Egypt (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
There was post on the yahoo group ECOSANRES asking about Cold Climate toilets -Cold weather toilets.
A reply mentioned this PDF:
Urine Diverting Toilets in Climates with Cold Winters Technical considerations and the reuse of nutrients with a focus on legal and hygienic aspects.
While the report is several year old, the $h1t is still good and worthy of summarizing
Authors and Editors:
- Anna Richert Stintzing
- VERNA, Ecological Inc., Sweden
- Dr. Håkan Jönsson
- Dr. Caroline Schönning
- Kati Hinkkanen
- Dr. Elisabeth Kvarnström
- Dr. Zsofia Ganrot
- Margriet Samwel
- Sascha Gabizon
- Annemarie Mohr
- Publisher: WECF – Women in Europe for a Common Future
- Pages:42 1.35 mb
- It is formatted 3 columns / page which doe not lend itself well to computer screens and pdf readers
- It is a fast read to those in this field
- It is a good read for someone who knows little about this field
1 – Summary
2 – Dry Urine Diversion
3 – EU directives relating to dry urine diversion where urine and faeces
4 – Legal aspects
5 – Cold temperature aspects
- Freezing of urine
- Hygiene and treatment of urine
- Pharmaceuticals and hormones
- Hygiene and treatment of faeces
- Technical aspects: construction and maintenance of
- urine diverting toilets in climates with cold winters
- Pipes for urine
- Odour control with ventilation
- System for reuse of urine and faeces in crop production
- Home gardens
- Large Scale Agricultural Production
6 – Examples from pilot projects and research from the northern hemisphere
7 – Knowledge gaps and identified research needs
8 – Annex
Three key points from the Reportssummary are:
“There are functioning examples of dry urine diversion in regions in the world with cold winter climates. The examples presented in the report show that it is possible to arrange agricultural reuse of urine and faeces in large or small scale crop production.”
“The fact that there are only short periods during the year when urine can be used as a fertiliser place demands on a storage system for the urine. There are a few alternatives; one of the most economic may be to arrange storage on a farm, in covered storage containers previously used for animal urine.”
“There are still development needs and knowledge gaps. Some of these are related to temperate and cold climates, such as the fate of microorganisms in urine at temperatures below freezing. However, this should not be considered a major constraint to the development of dry urine diversion, since the risk is relatively low, and can be handled through combination with other hygienic activities.”
The report reprints 3 basic but useful tables from other organizations:
1: Recommended guideline storage times for urinea based on estimated pathogen contentb and recommended crop for larger systemsc (WHO, 2006).
2: Requirements on storage and allowed crops for diverted human urine that is collected from larger systems. (Swedish EPA, 2002).
3: Recommendations for storage treatment of dry excreta and faecal sludge before use at household and large-scale (municipal) levels. The treatments assume no
addition of non-sanitised material (WHO, 2006).
Again the report is a quick and easy read, providing a good preface to a much larger document that needs to be written on the subject. The report ends nicely, saying we need more research :
“There are some definite areas where there is a need of systematic research and development (R&D). Some of these, especially related to winter climate aspects, are specified in the following text.
One of the most discussed questions regarding urine diversion is the fate of pharmaceutical residues after excretion, and how this affects choice of collection and treatment of human excreta. Research on fate of pharmaceuticals in waste water treatment plants is being undertaken in Germany and Sweden. No known field studies are taking place on fate of pharmaceutical residues when urine or sewage sludge is applied to the soil. The current recommendation to use urine as a fertiliser in agriculture rests on the analysis that the soil system is well suited to digest harmful organic substances due to microbial life in the surface layers of soil. This would be an interesting field of study that can give valuable information on design of reuse systems.
Sanitisation of faeces is another aspect that needs attention. The WHO guidelines on the reuse of human excreta in agriculture mention the alkaline treatment by adding ashes or alkaline substances with a storage time of 6 month ( > 35 °C ) as a possible way to sanitise faeces, or 1,5 – 2 years storage time. The temperature intervals given do not cater for needs in temperate or cold climates, which means that knowledge on treatment of faeces in this region should be developed. Research on more simple and robust treatment methods is needed.
Suggested applied R&D projects
- Establishment of new pilot projects and evaluation of existing projects. Monitoring and evaluation of existing dry urine diversion projects is a costefficient way of generating knowledge. Dissemination of results, regardless of if they are positive or negative, from existing pilots is vital. The establishment of new pilot projects will also contribute to the bank of knowledge.
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on requested storage in ambient or alkaline environment in temperate and cold climates (winters with temperatures far below zero).
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on the implementation of chemical sanitisation of faeces with urea. This is an interesting method, but the practical implications need to be studied and developed.
- Sanitisation of urine: what happens in the urine when it is frozen and what are the implications for storage intervals?
- Pharmaceutical residues: studies of soil system when urine is used as a fertiliser. Effect on microbial community, speed of decomposition. Comparisons with sewage sludge, farmyard manure.
- Toilet design: development of risers and squat-plates for local production. Care given to needs of different users: children, disabled, elderly, men, women. Toilets of today need development since many do not divert as much urine as possible, and are unnecessarily difficult to clean.
- Systems analysis from an economic point of view. Comparison of investment and maintenance costs of urine diversion systems and conventional sanitation.
- Systems analysis from an environmental point of view. How do different activities affect the sustainability of the system, for example fertilisation strategies, choice of tank, joint measures or single toilets?
- What are the economical incentives for implementation of urine diversion? How to design the economical system with the regard to municipal responsibility and financial support/ interactions. How should the systems be organized and which are the most important drivers for the different stake holders.”
other related links
- Inactivation of bacteria and viruses in human urine depending on temperature and dilution rate.
- The Swedish Eco-Sanitation Experience pdf
- Ecosan Sanitation Facilities resources
- Reuse of faeces and urine – Appropedia: The sustainability wiki
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture
- Human urine – Chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency
This Came up in a google news watch – worthy of noting – originally published in 2006 by Elizabeth Anne Tilley
“Phosphorus, like oil, is a non-renewable resource that must be harvested from finite resources in the earth’s crust. An essential element for life, phosphorus is becoming increasingly scarce, contaminated, and difficult to extract. Struvite, or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH₄P0₄.6H₂0) is a white, crystalline phosphate mineral that can be used as a bioavailable fertilizer and can be recovered from aqueous solutions such as digestor supernant. In response to diminishing water resources, increasing nutrient pollution, and largely unaffordable centralized treatment, a paradigm of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) has emerged. A central tenant of EcoSan technology is nutrient recovery; by separating urine from feces in the absence of water, urine can be used as a clean, concentrated nutrient source. Urine harvested in this manner is used as a liquid fertilizer with varying degrees of success and acceptance. This research examines the potential of urine to be a feedstock for struvite recovery. By recovering a sustainable source of phosphorus from urine, the prospect of appropriate sanitation and closed-loop nutrient systems, may move closer to reality. In laboratory experiments using synthetic and real human urine, different methods of preparing urine to be used as a feedstock for struvite recovery, were examined. The effect of temperature, faecal contamination, dilution, and headspace on stored nutrient levels was examined. The effect of adding different quantities of magnesium, at different times, on the amount of phosphorus that could be removed from solution, was also examined. An average of 70% of phosphorus could be removed from real urine in the form of struvite when magnesium was added to the urine solution after ureolysis had forced the precipitation of calcium and magnesium minerals; magnesium added before ureolysis began retarded the process. Dilution and the presence of wastewater were found to affect the rate of ureolysis but not the purity of the struvite recovered; recovered struvite was approximately 99% pure regardless of dilution or contamination. Based on a comparison of the results, synthetic urine was found to be representative of the general behaviour of real urine during struvite formation.”
download link is VERY slow: ubc_2006-0678.pdf
posting per request
Please find the latest revised version of the WHO Technical Notes for Emergencies freely available at:
Other free downloadable resources for emergencies are available from the WEDC Bookshop, including:
Emergency Water Supply
Controlling and Preventing Disease
Excreta Disposal in Emergencies
Emergency Vector Control
PLEASE FORWARD THIS MESSAGE TO COLLEAGUES WHO MAY FIND THESE RESOURCES HELPFUL.
The proceedings from the DRY TOILET 2009 conference held by Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland are available They are a great resource and available at http://huussi.net/tapahtumat/DT2009/full.html
The Suomi version of the home page is http://www.huussi.net/
|1 PROMOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ORDER TO
Namibia, Finland, Tajikistan, Nepal, Uganda
|2 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY
||Philippines, India, Argentina, Belarus, Nigeria|
|3 IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN
|4a PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA|
|4b PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF
Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso,
| 5 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL
|6 GENDER ASPECTS
RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS
Bangladesh and others
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS continues
Ethiopia, Inner Mongolia, China
Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania,Kenya, India
|Side event SUSTAINABLE
SANITATION FOR TOURISM AND RECREATION
Republic of Karelia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland
Here is great video showing how the EcoSan toilet works, stressing:
1 You don’t need water to us an EcoSan toilet, saving a precious resource
2 There is a huge benefit to use urine as a fertilizer
The video the workings of toilet itself. What I find wonderful is that this video explains & shows the full sequence of steps taken to after urination to get the urine onto the the field as fertilizer. This is followed by a wonderful comparison of crop yields comparing side by side fields, on fertilized with urine the other fertilized with commercial fertilizer. The fields fertilized with urine did better than the commercial fertilizers and at NO COST!!!! The video is in English and the location is Ethiopia. Several local experts are use to explain particular points.
Title Urine Diversion Toilets: advantages and use agriculture
a brief Ecosan Documentary by Andreas Wilkin c 2008
produced for the ROSA project
contact Franziska Meinzinger f.meinzinger @ tu-harburg.de
Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg TUHH
(Hamburg University of Technology)
WASHLink Notes: addition resources:
other related YouTube videos (using following search terms)
|ecosan urine||ecosan construction||ecosan watsan|
|ecosan design materials||ecosan fertilizer||ecosan toilet|
Google Scholar search
source source http://www.eawag.ch/organisation/abteilungen/sandec/publikationen/stun
The STUN project, operated in co-operation with UN-HABITAT Nepal, examines the feasibility of converting source-separated urine into a dry fertilizer product called ‘struvite’. Struvite (often called MAP for magnesium ammonium phosphate: MgNH4PO4.6H2O) is a safe, bioavailable fertilizer which can be precipitated from urine with only the addition of magnesium.
Working in the Kathmandu Valley, with the community of Siddhipur, the STUN project has assessed the social,
economic, and technical feasibility of producing struvite at the community level. By producing struvite from urine, we hope to promote improved sanitation, local food security, and nutrient independence as Nepal must import all of its fertilizer at prices which are not always affordable for subsistence farmers.
The following reports are available for download:
E Tilley, K Udert, B Etter, R Khadka, E John. (2009). Struvite Recovery in Kathamandu: A business model for increased food security
Fertilizer. (award winning poster from the Alliance for Global Sustainability 2009 Annual Meeting)
Etter, B. (2009). Process optimization of low-cost struvite recovery. Masters thesis submitted to EPFL.
Etter, B. (2009). Struvite recovery from urine at community scale in Nepal. Intermediate report. Eawag: Swiss Federal Insitute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (technical optimization)
Gantenbein, B. and Khadka, R. (2009). Struvite Recovery from Urine at Community Scale in Nepal: Final Project Report Phase 1. Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. (social assessment)
Kashekya, E.J. (2009). Struvite production from source separated urine in Nepal: The reuse potential of the effluent. MSc Thesis MWI-SE 2009/01. UNESCO-IHE and Eawag, Delft, The Netherlands.
Tilley, E., Gantenbein, B., Khadka, R., Zurbrügg, C. and Udert, K.M. (2009). Social and economic feasibility of struvite recovery from uine at the community level in Nepal. In: International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams. K. Ashley, D. Mavinic and F. Koch (eds). IWA Publishing, London, pp 169-178.
For more information (in Switzerland) please contact email@example.com
For more information on:
Urine separation and reuse: