from South East Asia Journal of Public Health
(available as 6 page pdf below )
Akinwale OP1, Adeneye AK2, Musa AZ3, Oyedeji KS4, Sulyman MA5, Oyefara JO6, Adejoh PE7, Adeneye AA8
1Director of Research (Neglected Tropical Diseases), Head, Molecular Parasitology Research Laboratory, Public Health Division; 2,5Research Fellow, Public Health Division; 3Research Fellow, Clinical Sciences Division; 4Research Fellow, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division; Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria. 6,7Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria. 8Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Lagos metropolis, southwestern Nigeria, is faced with environmental problems ranging from slums and informal settlements, to crime and delinquency. The aim of the study was to explore the demographic characteristics, migra- tion history and living conditions of 2,434 residents of Ajegunle, Ijora Oloye and Makoko in Lagos metropolis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 2010 and October 2012 using a semi-structured questionnaire. Units of analysis used were households. Many of the respondents are low-income earners working in the informal service sectors, and living in unhygienic conditions. The communities are densely populated, with more than five people living in a room. Residents make use of poor and overstressed facilities and inadequate water and electricity supplies. They also lack appropriate garbage disposal facilities and good drainage. Personal hygiene habits are very poor; open defecation in ditches and the lagoon is widely practiced. Respondents are faced with perennial flooding due to blocked drainage systems resulting in a number of diseases, such as malaria, diarrhea, cold and cough. Migra- tion has led to uncontrolled and unplanned developments of slums in metropolitan Lagos. This in turn has led to poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, polluted environment, uncontrolled population growth and health problems in the slums as are observed in this study. There is an urgent need for comprehensive interventions from the government and other organizations to strengthen existing programs to improve the health and quality of life of this vulnerable population. more….
Published on Nov 25, 2013
Catarina de Albuquerque, a leading human rights expert and the first United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to safe drinking water and sanitation, delivers the 2013 UNC Health and Human Rights Lecture, “Implementing Human Rights to Eliminate Inequalities in Water and Sanitation.”
DOWNLOAD THE PODCAST: https://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/…
The event is co-sponsored by the Center for Bioethics, the Department of Public Policy, the Water Institute at UNC and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases at UNC. It is part of the University’s campus-wide theme, ‘Water in Our World.’
Great video! by Water For People, sure there are a lot of little details not mentioned, but you can not do better for a 5 minute video.
Hardback: $145.00 978-0-415-82818-5 December 24th 2013
“Based on the work of the WASHCost project run by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), this book provides an evaluation of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sectors in the context of developing countries and is the first systematic study of applying the life-cycle cost approach to assessing allocations. It presents unit cost estimates of the WASH sector across geographic locations and technologies, including rural and peri-urban areas, and these are compared with service levels. It analyses detailed data from more than 5000 households across nine agro-climatic zones in Andhra Pradesh State in India. Key issues assessed include poverty analysis of service levels, cost drivers and factors at the village and household level, and governance aspects such as transparency, accountability and value for money in relation to unit costs and service levels.
This is the most comprehensive study of the WASH sector in India and elsewhere that utilises the life-cycle cost approach, along with GIS, econometric modelling and qualitative research methods. Not only does it contribute to research and methodology in this area, but the analysis also provides valuable insights for planners, policy makers and bi-lateral donors. The authors show how the methodology can also be applied in other developing country contexts.”Contents
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
- WASH Sector in India: The Policy Context
- V. Kurian Baby and V. Ratna Reddy
- Life-Cycle Cost Approach: An Analytical Framework for WASH Sector
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
- Unit Costs and Service Levels: Region and Technology-wise
- V. Ratna Reddy, M. Venkataswamy and M. Snehalatha
- Explaining Inter-Village Variations in Drinking Water Provision: Factors Influencing Costs and Service Levels in Rural Andhra Pradesh
- V. Ratna Reddy
- Rural Sanitation and Hygiene: Economic and Institutional Aspects of Sustainable Services
- V. Ratna Reddy
- Nirmal Gram Puraskar and Sanitation Service Levels: Curse of Slippage
- M. Snehalatha, V. Anitha Raj, P. Bhushan and M. Venkataswamy
- Cost of Provision and Managing WASH Services in Peri-Urban Areas
- G. Alivelu, V. Ratna Reddy, P. Bhushan and V. Anitha Raj
- Skewed and Inequitable Access to Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services
- M.Snehalatha and James Batchelor
- How can Water Security be Improved in Water Scarce Areas of Rural India?
- Charles Batchelor, James Batchelor and M. Snehalatha
- Assessing Progress towards Sustainable Service Delivery in India: Lessons for Rural Water Supply
- A.J. James
- Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP): Understanding Governance in Rural WASH Sector
- M.V. Rama Chandrudu. Safa Fanaian and R. Subramanyam Naidu
- Decentralized Governance and Sustainable Service Delivery: A Case of Nenmeni Rural Water Supply Scheme, Kerala, India
- P.K. Kurian, V. Kurian Baby and Terry Thomas
- Provision of Sustainable WASH Services: Policy Options and Imperatives
- V. Ratna Reddy, Catarina Fonseca and Charles Batchelor
In emerging markets, many water supply and sanitation utilities are locked in a vicious spiral of weak performance, insufficient funding, deterioration of assets, institutional discrepancies and political interference. This is largely the consequence of poor governance, ineffective and misdirected policies, and the monopolistic nature of the sector.To help support reform in the water and sanitation sectors, the World Bank Institute (WBI) has developed a core learning program in “Designing and Implementing Successful Utility Reform.” The objective of the program is to provide government officials, senior managers of utilities and technical staff with the knowledge, skills and tools for initiating and sustaining reform. This e-learning program, which consists of lessons, case studies and exercises, supports stakeholders to reform their water utility.Target Audience:
Mid-level managers and technical specialists who are responsible for change in their organization. more…
About the e-Institute:
This unique global portal is designed to support self-motivated learners who want to get up to speed on the latest development trends, enhance their skills, and share knowledge through on-line learning communities.
Connect. Learn. Innovate. Inspire.
One of the greatest challenges facing today’s development practitioners is the dearth of affordable, innovative, and practitioner-focused training on the “how to” of policy reform and proven good practices customized to local needs. Tight training budgets and time constraints preclude travel to a central location for high quality, hands-on learning. The e-Institute was launched as a virtual learning classroom to provide convenient, easy, and reliable access to cutting edge knowledge and communities of practice. More than forty-five e-Learning courses address complex real-world problems in priority areas such as governance, health, cities, climate change, and public private partnerships. Learners also have access to free monthly podcasts and webinars, video success stories, multimedia toolkits, and other resources. source…
Paper: Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka – Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria
This study assesses the cholera incidence in urban slum in Lagos State, Nigeria with the emphasis on high risk of unimproved sources of water for domestic use and unsanitary environment. The study uses sets of one hundred and twenty structured guided questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on residents’ opinions and experiences on the risk and incidence of cholera in the area. Ten water samples were spatially collected from storage containers of the residents for microbial assessment Results of social survey instrument showed there was cholera incidence and the area is still at high risk as revealed from the result of coliform bacilli with high most probable number (MPN) count found in 6 of the 16 sampled water as well as the faecal coliform found virtually in all sampled water. The study concluded that increasing population of urban centres has been a major contributor to the unsanitary environmental, continuous use of unimproved sources of water as well as environmental health problems such as slum cholera risk and incidence. Therefore, for sustainable friendly and free diseases’ environment provision of habitable and conducive environment for the slum residents should be the priority of government.
Paper: Compliance with Standards and Immerging Issues of Household Sewage Disposal Systems – Sri Lanka
New paper: Assessment of women’s participation in community based projects in water & sanitation – Kangundo, Kenya
Assessment of women’s participation in community Based projects in upper manza water and sanitation Project in Tala Division, Kangundo District
Abstract:This study sought to assess the participation of women in community based projects. The major focus was on participation of women in Upper Manza Water and Sanitation Project. The’ study used purposive sampling to select key project officials and local leaders. Other participants were selected through stratified random sampling to give primary data with the qualitative data analyzed using Microsoft word editor. This data was also collated and organized according to the study objectives. Evidence from this study showed that women in Upper Manza Water and Sanitation Project have not fully taken their numerical advantage to assert their contributions in running the project. This is despite they being the main beneficiaries of improved water management in the community; their substantial contributions are largely hidden behind social norms regarding gender roles and relations. It is, therefore, recommended that women’s empowerment must be the concern of both women and men and the degree to which a project is defined as potentially empowering women is shown by the extent to which it addresses women’s practical and immediate needs. more….c
In Message for World Toilet Day, Secretary-General Urges that Sanitation Be at Heart of Post-2015 Development Framework
Following is UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s message for World Toilet Day, observed on 19 November:
Each year, more than 800,000 children under five die needlessly from diarrhoea — more than one child a minute. Countless others fall seriously ill, with many suffering long-term health and developmental consequences. Poor sanitation and hygiene are the primary cause. Worldwide, some 2.5 billion people lack the benefits of adequate sanitation. More than 1 billion people practise open defecation. We must break the taboos and make sanitation for all a global development priority.
This first official observance by the United Nations of World Toilet Day is an opportunity to highlight this important topic. Sanitation is central to human and environmental health. It is essential for sustainable development, dignity and opportunity. Poor water and sanitation cost developing countries around $260 billion a year — 1.5 per cent of their gross domestic product (GDP). On the other hand, every dollar invested can bring a five-fold return by keeping people healthy and productive. When schools offer decent toilets, 11 per cent more girls attend. When women have access to a private latrine, they are less vulnerable to assault.
Despite the compelling moral and economic case for action on sanitation, progress has been too little and too slow. That is why I launched a Call to Action on Sanitation this year to end open defecation by 2025 and build on existing efforts, such as Sanitation and Water for All and the Sanitation Drive to 2015, the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
We are a long way from achieving the MDG target of reducing by half the proportion of people lacking adequate sanitation. We must urgently step up our efforts, with all actors working together for rapid, tangible results. And, as we look beyond 2015, it is essential that sanitation is placed at the heart of the post-2015 development framework. The solutions need not be expensive or technology driven. There are many successful models that can be replicated and scaled up. We must also work to educate at-risk communities and change cultural perceptions and long-standing practices that have no place in our modern world.
By working together — and by having an open and frank discussion on the importance of toilets and sanitation — we can improve the health and well-being of one third of the human family. That is the goal of World Toilet Day.
Learn more at the World Toilet Day Site:
World Toilet Day is observed annually on 19 November. This international day of action aims to break the taboo around toilets and draw attention to the global sanitation challenge.
Can you imagine not having a toilet? Can you imagine not having privacy when you need to relieve yourself? Although unthinkable for those living in wealthy parts of the world, this is a harsh reality for many – in fact, one in three people on this globe, does not have access to a toilet! Have you ever thought about the true meaning of dignity?
World Toilet Day was created to pose exactly these kind of questions and to raise global awareness of the daily struggle for proper sanitation that a staggering 2.5 billion people face. World Toilet Day brings together different groups, such as media, the private sector, development organisations and civil society in a global movement to advocate for safe toilets. Since its inception in 2001, World Toilet Day has become an important platform to demand action from governments and to reach out to wider audiences by showing that toilets can be fun and sexy as well as vital to life. more…
- Sanergy from Nairobi wins first Sarphati Sanitation Award (sanitationupdates.wordpress.com)
- Bollywood celeb advocates hand washing at the United Nations General Assembly (mydoorsign.com)
- Paving the way toward the MDGs and beyond (devex.com)
- UN Assembly Ramps-up Pressure on MDGs, Clarifies Post-2015 Goals (ictsd.org)
- Out in the open (thehindu.com)
Author: Annatoria Chinyama, Tendai Toma
Department of Civil and Water Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, P.O Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Understanding the Poor Performance of Urban Sewerage Systems – A Case of Coldstream High Density Suburbs, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
The population of Coldstream High Density Suburbs in Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe is increasing and the sewerage system shows signs of poor performance. The frequency of reported sewerage system blockages in the suburb increased from 43 per month to 65 per month between April 2012 and March 2013. The suburb has also been experiencing water shortages. An increasing population and low water supply versus overflowing sewage is a potential health risk.
The main objective of this paper was to investigate the causes of the sewer system poor performance. This was achieved by assessing the sewer system infrastructure as well as the operation of the system. The impact of the behaviour of residents on the performance of the system was also discussed. The main components of the infrastructure (manholes and sewers) were physically checked for soundness. The operation of the system was assessed by a hydraulic analysis of discharge, depth of flow and velocity of flow in the sewers. Questionnaires were used to investigate the impact of the behaviour of residents on the performance of the sewer system.
It was found that 4% of the components of the sewer system infrastructure were below standard and the collector main sewer was the one mainly affected. 68% of the sewers along the collector main had velocity of flow below 0.6m/s and all the sewers had depth of flow below 50%. Of the residents interviewed, 90% dumped solid wastes in the sewers and 43% did so because they were unaware of the impact.
It was concluded that the sewer system failed to meet standard because the sewer system fails to self-cleanse the solid waste dumped by residents in the sewers due to water shortages. It is recommended that the municipality raises awareness among residents and some of the infrastructure should be rehabilitated. more…