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new reprort Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor

Mon, 25Jan2010 1 comment

Financing On-Site  Sanitation for the Poor A Six Country Comparative Review and Analysis

is Available From WSP Water and Sanitation Program is 174 page pdf doc dated January 2010

On-Site Sanitation for the Poor

“The study was written by Sophie Trémolet (independent consultant) under the leadership and guidance of Eddy Perez (Water and Sanitation Program – WSP) and Pete Kolsky (World Bank)…”

It starts with a quick overview of current conditions quoting from a variety of existing publications:

“…sanitation costs the economies of four Southeast Asian countries the equivalent of approximately 2 percent of their GDP…”

“In the six countries described in this study, the capital cost of household sanitation varied between US$17 and US$568, costs which often exceeded half the annual household income of the poor in the respective project areas.”

They go on to say ” The challenges of fnance – the practical decisions about who pays how much for what, when, and how – thus lie at the heart of the world’s eforts to promote health, dignity, and a cleaner environment through sanitation. Yet despite the importance of the topic, past eforts to gather meaningful data on sanitation fnance have largely failed.”   Thus, the study.

The 6 cases studies are:

  • Bangladesh DISHARI – based on Community Led Total Sanitation CTLS
    • rural areas
    • Basic latrines
    • 1,630,733 people
    • 2004 to 2008
  • Ecuador  – PRAGUAS
    • rural areas
    • Sanitation units (toilet, septic tank, sink, shower)
    • 143,320 people
    • 2001 to 2006
  • Maharashtra (India) – Total Sanitation Campaign   (TSC) using CLTS approaches
    • rural areas
    • Improved latrines
    • 21,200,417 people
    • July 2000 to November 2008
  • Mozambique – Improved Latrines Program (PLM) -
    • urban areas
    • Improved latrines
    • 1,887,891 people
    • 1980 to 2007
  • Sénégal- PAQPUD -
    • urban areas
    • improved latrines to septic tanks
    • 410,507 people
    • 2002 to 2005
  • Vietnam – Sanitation Revolving Fund SRF
    • urban areas
    • Mostly bathrooms and septic tanks
    • 193,670 people
    • 2001 to 2008

According to the study they address:

•  How much does provision of access to on-site sanitation cost, that is, once all costs (hardware and soft-
ware) are taken into account?
•  Do the type and scale of sanitation subsidy afect provision and uptake? How?
•  How can the public sector most efectively support household investment in on-site sanitation?
•  Should it be via investment in demand stimulation, subsidies to households or suppliers, by support to
credit schemes, or by other means?
•  Should hardware subsidies be provided or should public spending be focused on promoting demand or supporting the supply side of the market? Where hardware subsidies are adopted, what is the best way
to ensure that they reach their intended recipients and are sustainable and scalable?

•  What innovative mechanisms (such as credit or revolving funds) can be used to promote household sanitation fnancing?

Evaluation criteria:

  1. “Impact on sustainable access  to services: Did the project contribute to increasing access to sanitation? “
  2. “Costs: Are the costs of the resulting sanitation facilities reasonable and affordable to the beneficiaries?”
  3. “Effectiveness in the use of public funds: Were public funds used in a way that maximized impact? “
  4. “Poverty targeting: Did the program seek to target the poor and was the program effective at doing so?”
  5. “Financial sustainability:    Could the financial approach be sustained over time without external support?”
  6. “Scalability:    Could the fnancial approach be scaled up to cover those who are not yet covered in the
    country at a reasonable cost?”

The Key finding explored in detail in the study are

  1. “Taken together, the case studies make a compelling case that partial public funding can trigger signifcantly increased access to household sanitation. “
  2. “The studies show that the most relevant question is not “Are subsidies good or bad?” but rather “How best can we invest public funds?” “
  3. “The diferent fnancing strategies adopted had a profound infuence, for better or for worse, on equity, scale, sustainability, levels of service, and costs.”
  4. “Households are key investors in on-site sanitation, and careful project design and implementation can maximize their involvement, satisfaction, and fnancial investment…”
  5. “Hardware subsidies of some form played a critical role in all six case studies. “
  6. “Subsidy targeting methods need to be tailored to country circumstances.  “
  7. “The provision of hardware subsidies on an output basis rather than an input basis can be efective at stimulating demand and leveraging private investment.”
  8. All of the case studies included a signifcant publicly funded software component (promotion and community mobilization).

Related:

Gates Foundation steps up water efforts with grant to improve sanitation

The challenges of financing sanitation

Ethiopia – Effective financing of local governments to provide water and sanitation services

Innovations in Financing Urban Water & Sanitation

DRY TOILET 2009 Conference proceedings and presentations

Sun, 27Dec2009 Comments off

The proceedings from the DRY TOILET 2009 conference held by Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland are  available   They are  a great resource and available at  http://huussi.net/tapahtumat/DT2009/full.html

The summary  is also avaliable in  – suomi (Finish) and Russian as a pdf

The Suomi version of the  home page is http://www.huussi.net/

Session Presentations

&
Country Focus

1 PROMOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ORDER TO
ACHIEVE MDG’S
  • “Composting Toilet – The Bangalore, India experience”
  • Sustainable sanitation in Namibia’s lowest income urban
    areas: “The potential of composting toilets”
  • “To dry or not to dry?-People matter in scaling up dry
    sanitation”
  • “Dry Toilets in Tajikistan”
  • “Sustainable sanitation beyond Taps & Toilet”
  • “Prevalence of Ecological sanitation uptake and associated
    factors in Kabale municipality, Uganda”
India,
Namibia, Finland, Tajikistan, Nepal, Uganda
2 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY
SANITATION
  • “Toilets and health throughout history”
  • “The public health safety of using human excreta from urine
    diverting toilets for agriculture: The Philippine experience”
  • “Dry Toilet – A boon to rural community”
  • “Ecological sanitation: inactivation of pathogens in faeces
    from dry toilet – grey water disposal”
  • “From pit latrine to a safe and sustainable toilet.”
  • “Possible public health implication of excreta re-use in
    poorly sanitated rural farming communities of Ebonyi state, South-East
    Nigeria”
Philippines, India, Argentina, Belarus, Nigeria
3 IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN
EMERGENCIES
  • “Sanitation in the disaster cycle – immediate response,
    preparedness and risk reduction”
  • “Provision of Dry Toilets in earthquake hit areas of
    Pakistan – learning from first hand experience”
  • “Eco-toilet for disaster preparedness”
  • “Introducing ecological sanitation in emergency: Some
    lessons learned from a pilot project Bangladesh”
  • “Sanitation in IDP and refugee camps in Chad: the current
    and future challenges”
Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Chad
4a PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA
  • “Pathogens of concern for developing countries and risk of
    reusing ecosan sludge in agriculture”
  • “Urine from separating toilets for non-edible plants”
  • “From pit latrine to nutrient conservation”
  • “Re-use of human’s urine in market-gardening in
    South-Benin: financial returns analysis”
  • “Biogas generation – a multi-dimensional development
    approach”
Mexico,
Benin, Ethiopia
4b PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF
EXCRETA continues
  • “Dry toilet compost and separated urine as fertilisers for
    cabbage and potato – a case study from Finland “
  • “Prospects and Challenges in the reuse of human excreta in
    Nakuru Municipality, Kenya”
  • “Use of Faecal Sludge for Agriculture in Tamale Metropolis:
    perception of Farmers, Consumers and Relevant Agencies”
  • “Positive spin offs using mobile urinals and UD toilets in
    Burkina Faso”
  • “Study on the compost produced by compost bins and ecosan
    latrines and survey on knowledge attitudes and practices in usage of
    compost bins and ecosan latrines”
Finland,
Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso,

Sri Lanka

5 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL
SANITATION
  • “Evaluation of social and cultural acceptance of the
    biotoilet system”
  • “Social representattions of hygiene and excretes disposal -
    The case of ecological dry toilets introduction in Quibdo and
    Tumaco-Columbia”
  • “Towards a common goal. The challenges of the sanitation
    sector in Zambia”
  • “Living with the marginalised: Addressing the
    socio-economic and cultural aspects in implementing Oka-Dry Toilets in
    Madimba; case of Lusaka”
  • Sari Huuhtanen*, Finland; Michelo Katambo, Zambia:
  • “The challenge of social change; experiences from Zambia
    dry-sanitation project (ZASP, 2006-2008)”
Mexico,
Columbia, Zambia
6 GENDER ASPECTS
RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
  • “Gender aspects of ecological sanitation with urine
    diverting dry toilets”
  • “Female local latrine builders: Contributing towards
    objectives of International Year of Sanitation, 2008″
  • “Women and ecological sanitation”
  • “Promotion of dry toilets for reducing vulnerability for
    the poor women having Islamic and cultural values in urban slums of
    Bangladesh”
Nepal,
Uganda, Bangladesh
7a TECHNICAL
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS
  • “Is the
    Agricultural utilisation of Treated Urine and Faces recommendable?”
  • “Developing low cost composting toilet for developing
    countries”
  • “Solar thermal sanitation of human faeces – an affordable
    solution for
    ensuring sustainability of EcoSan activities”
  • “Feasibility assessment of application of onsite volume
    reduction
    system (OVRS) for source-separated urine”
  • “Urban slum dwellers in Kenya and Bangladesh benefit from
    using Peepoo
    bags which are self-sanitising and biodegradable”
Kenya and
Bangladesh and others
7b TECHICAL
DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS continues
  • “From the outhouse to indoor dry toilets in Finland”
  • “Estimation of water evaporation rate from composting
    toilet”
  • “Implementation of urine-diverting dry toilets in
    multi-storey apartment buildings in Ethiopia”
  • Dry sanitation in multi-story apartment buildings: “The
    case of Dongsheng, Inner Mongolia, China”
  • “The humanure toilet”
Finland,
Ethiopia, Inner Mongolia, China
8 CAPACITY
BUILDING
  • “Going to scale with urine diversion in Sweden – From
    individual households to municipal systems in 15 years”
  • “The processes of adaption during the introducing urine
    diverting toilets in Kyrgyzstan”
  • “Influence of social, cultural, economic and gender aspects
    in dry toilet as eco-sanitation tool. Case study of Sukuma-nomadic
    community in Malinyi, Tanzania.”
  • “Experiences with ecosan systems to provide sustainable
    sanitation for schools in Kenya and India”
  • “Gold Factory – An experimental art project with dry
    toilets”
Sweden,
Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania,Kenya, India
Side event SUSTAINABLE
SANITATION FOR TOURISM AND RECREATION
  • “Toilet provision in the Cairngorms national park,
    Scotland, UK”
  • “Experience of biotoilet installations on Kizhi island,
    Republic of Karelia, Russia”
  • “Promotion of sustainable development of rural communities
    around especially protected natural areas in Kazakhstan”
  • “Public toilets and care practices in nature parks in
    Finland, current situation and recommendations for improvement”
Scotland,
Republic of Karelia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland

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