This is a Wonderful 39 page Technical document on covering all aspect of Waterless Urinals and some variants that incorporates
the core ideas.
- Dr V M Chariar
- S Ramesh Sakthivel
This Resource Book is a guide that seeks to assist individuals, builders, engineers, architects, and policy makers in promoting waterless urinals and the benefits of harvesting urine for reuse through waterless urinals and urine diverting toilets.
Chapters cover a wide set of Waterless Urinals details
- Waterless Urinals
- 1.1 Advantages of Waterless Urinals and Reuse of Urine
- 1.2 Demerits of Conventional Urinals
- Functioning of Waterless Urinals
- 2.1 Sealant Liquid Traps
- 2.2 Membrane Traps
- 2.3 Biological Blocks
- 2.4 Comparative Analysis of Popular Odour Traps
- 2.5 Other Types of odour Traps
- 2.6 Installation and Maintenance of Waterless Urinals
- Innovative Urinal Designs
- 3.1 Public Urinal Kiosk 21
- 3.2 Green Waterless Urinal
- 3.3 Self Constructed Urinals
- Urine Diverting Toilets
- Urine Harvesting for Agriculture
- 5.1 Safe Application of Urine 3
- 5.2 Methods of Urine Application
- Other Applications of Urine
- Challenges and the Way Forward
- References and Further Reading
- Comparative analysis of popular odour traps
- Average chemical composition of fresh urine
- Recommended dose of urine for various crops
- Waterless urinals for men
- Schematic diagram showing functioning of urinals
- Sealant liquid based odour trap
- Urinals with sealant liquid based odour traps
- Flat rubber tube by Keramag and silicon membranes by Addicom
- LDPE membrane by Shital Ceramics
- Biological blocks
- Formwork used for fabrication of public urinal kiosk
- Reinforced concrete public urinal kiosk
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Green urinal established at IIT Delhi
- Plant bed of green urinal with perforated pipe
- Drawing of public urinal kiosk established at IIT Delhi
- Self constructed urinal Eco‐lily
- Squatting type urine diverting dry toilet with two chambers
- Urine diverting no mix toilet 27 Sectional view of a urine diverting dry toilet
- Deep injection of urine using soil injector
- Deep injection of urine using perforated pet bottles
- Use of fertilisation tank for applying urine through drip irrigation
- Manually operated reactor for recovery of struvite
- Schematic drawing of ammonia stripping from urine
“An odourless trap Zerodor which does not require replaceable parts or consumables resulting in low maintenance costs has been developed at IIT Delhi. This model is in final test stage yet to be made commercially available.” more on Zerodor…
Waterless Urinals do not require water for flushing and can be promoted at homes, institutions and public places to save water, energy and to harvest urine as a resource. Reduction in infrastructure required for water supply and waste water treatment is also a spinoff arising from installing waterless urinals. The concept, founded on the principles of ecological sanitation helps in preventing environmental damage caused by conventional flush sanitation systems.
In recent years, Human Urine has been identified as a potential resource that can be beneficially used for agriculture and industrial purposes. Human urine contains significant portion of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium excreted by human beings. Urine and faeces can also be separated employing systems such as urine diverting toilets. In the light of diminishing world’s phosphate and oil reserves which determine availability as well as pricing of mineral fertilisers, harvesting urine for reuse in agriculture assumes significant importance. Akin to the movement for harvesting rain water, urine harvesting is a concept which could have huge implications for resource conservation.
- UNICEF Report Highlights India’s Water Management Woes (circleofblue.org)
- SANITATION: Urban water woes (irinnews.org)
- From Water Problems to Water Solutions (slideshare.net)
- Lack of toilets, clean water costs world $260 bln a year – Liberian president (trust.org)
When looking at sanitation/wastewater treatment and making it economically feasible for more parts of the world, this is very interesting research. Some will say it has roots in the fact that there is “gold” in out crap…
Related links to this research:
…On May 1, a panel of judges awarded the $100,000 National University Clean Energy Business Challenge prize to the Stanford team for its project to convert nitrogen waste into nitrous oxide that is then used for clean power generation….
A new process for the removal of nitrogen from wastewater is introduced. The process involves three steps: (1) partial nitrification of NH4+ to NO2−; (2) partial anoxic reduction of NO2− to N2O; and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy recovery by either catalytic decomposition to N2 and O2 or use of N2O to oxidize biogas CH4. Steps 1 and 3 have been previously established at full-scale. Accordingly, bench-scale experiments focused on step 2. Two strategies were evaluated and found to be effective: in the first, Fe(II) was used to abiotically reduce NO2− to N2O; in the second, COD stored as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was used as the electron donor for partial heterotrophic reduction of NO2− to N2O. ….
Normally, we want to discourage these gases from forming,” said Craig Criddle, a professor of civil and environmental engineering and senior fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford. “But by encouraging the formation of nitrous oxide, we can remove harmful nitrogen from the water and simultaneously increase methane production for use as fuel.
- Total N2O emissions-which are believed to come primarily from nitrogen fertilizers used in agricultural production-would account for about 8 percent of California’s total greenhouse gas emissions. (familysurvivalprotocol.com)
- 1st International IWA Conference on Holistic Sludge Management (washlink.wordpress.com)
- Major Advance in Generating Electricity From Wastewater (wakingtimes.com)
- Major Advance in Generating Electricity From Wastewater (myscienceacademy.org)
- The Final Frontier of Water and Wastewater Treatment: Sludge Management Equipment Market Set to Reach $9.9 Billion by 2017 (prweb.com)
Redefining the model for urban sewage treatment / sanitation addressing
Waste recover- Key Chemicals
From the Youtube Site
“Kartik Chandran is an Environmental Engineer. He is currently Associate Professor of Earth and Environmental Engineering at Columbia University, where he leads the Columbia University Biomolecular Environmental Science program and the Wastewater Treatment and Climate Change program. Under his stewardship, the research directions of biological wastewater treatment and biological nitrogen removal were established for the first time ever in the history of Columbia University. Chandran is keenly interested in developing novel models for sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment, with a specific focus on managing the global nitrogen cycle (one of the grand challenges of the National Academy of Engineering) and linking it to the carbon cycle, the water cycle and the energy cycle. Chandran has received, among other awards, the NSF CAREER award and the Paul Busch Award. He was the recipient of a 2007 National Academies of Science Fellowship and a guest professorship at the Delft University of Technology. In 2011, Chandran began implementing a novel model for sanitation in Africa, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He also serves on the Board of Trustees of the Water Environment Federation.”
- Gresham’s wastewater treatment plant leading way in power production, alternative energies (oregonlive.com)
- India flush with wastewater treatment opportunities (eco-business.com)
- 300 swimming pools of partly treated sewage dumped into the Thames River (lfpress.com)
- Ivy League Brains Figure Out How to Make Biodegradable Plastic from Greenhouse Gases (cleantechnica.com)
- Sewage-powered hydrogen fueling station opens in CA (reviews.cnet.com)
There was post on the yahoo group ECOSANRES asking about Cold Climate toilets -Cold weather toilets.
A reply mentioned this PDF:
Urine Diverting Toilets in Climates with Cold Winters Technical considerations and the reuse of nutrients with a focus on legal and hygienic aspects.
While the report is several year old, the $h1t is still good and worthy of summarizing
Authors and Editors:
- Anna Richert Stintzing
- VERNA, Ecological Inc., Sweden
- Dr. Håkan Jönsson
- Dr. Caroline Schönning
- Kati Hinkkanen
- Dr. Elisabeth Kvarnström
- Dr. Zsofia Ganrot
- Margriet Samwel
- Sascha Gabizon
- Annemarie Mohr
- Publisher: WECF – Women in Europe for a Common Future
- Pages:42 1.35 mb
- It is formatted 3 columns / page which doe not lend itself well to computer screens and pdf readers
- It is a fast read to those in this field
- It is a good read for someone who knows little about this field
1 – Summary
2 – Dry Urine Diversion
3 – EU directives relating to dry urine diversion where urine and faeces
4 – Legal aspects
5 – Cold temperature aspects
- Freezing of urine
- Hygiene and treatment of urine
- Pharmaceuticals and hormones
- Hygiene and treatment of faeces
- Technical aspects: construction and maintenance of
- urine diverting toilets in climates with cold winters
- Pipes for urine
- Odour control with ventilation
- System for reuse of urine and faeces in crop production
- Home gardens
- Large Scale Agricultural Production
6 – Examples from pilot projects and research from the northern hemisphere
7 – Knowledge gaps and identified research needs
8 – Annex
Three key points from the Reportssummary are:
“There are functioning examples of dry urine diversion in regions in the world with cold winter climates. The examples presented in the report show that it is possible to arrange agricultural reuse of urine and faeces in large or small scale crop production.”
“The fact that there are only short periods during the year when urine can be used as a fertiliser place demands on a storage system for the urine. There are a few alternatives; one of the most economic may be to arrange storage on a farm, in covered storage containers previously used for animal urine.”
“There are still development needs and knowledge gaps. Some of these are related to temperate and cold climates, such as the fate of microorganisms in urine at temperatures below freezing. However, this should not be considered a major constraint to the development of dry urine diversion, since the risk is relatively low, and can be handled through combination with other hygienic activities.”
The report reprints 3 basic but useful tables from other organizations:
1: Recommended guideline storage times for urinea based on estimated pathogen contentb and recommended crop for larger systemsc (WHO, 2006).
2: Requirements on storage and allowed crops for diverted human urine that is collected from larger systems. (Swedish EPA, 2002).
3: Recommendations for storage treatment of dry excreta and faecal sludge before use at household and large-scale (municipal) levels. The treatments assume no
addition of non-sanitised material (WHO, 2006).
Again the report is a quick and easy read, providing a good preface to a much larger document that needs to be written on the subject. The report ends nicely, saying we need more research :
“There are some definite areas where there is a need of systematic research and development (R&D). Some of these, especially related to winter climate aspects, are specified in the following text.
One of the most discussed questions regarding urine diversion is the fate of pharmaceutical residues after excretion, and how this affects choice of collection and treatment of human excreta. Research on fate of pharmaceuticals in waste water treatment plants is being undertaken in Germany and Sweden. No known field studies are taking place on fate of pharmaceutical residues when urine or sewage sludge is applied to the soil. The current recommendation to use urine as a fertiliser in agriculture rests on the analysis that the soil system is well suited to digest harmful organic substances due to microbial life in the surface layers of soil. This would be an interesting field of study that can give valuable information on design of reuse systems.
Sanitisation of faeces is another aspect that needs attention. The WHO guidelines on the reuse of human excreta in agriculture mention the alkaline treatment by adding ashes or alkaline substances with a storage time of 6 month ( > 35 °C ) as a possible way to sanitise faeces, or 1,5 – 2 years storage time. The temperature intervals given do not cater for needs in temperate or cold climates, which means that knowledge on treatment of faeces in this region should be developed. Research on more simple and robust treatment methods is needed.
Suggested applied R&D projects
- Establishment of new pilot projects and evaluation of existing projects. Monitoring and evaluation of existing dry urine diversion projects is a costefficient way of generating knowledge. Dissemination of results, regardless of if they are positive or negative, from existing pilots is vital. The establishment of new pilot projects will also contribute to the bank of knowledge.
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on requested storage in ambient or alkaline environment in temperate and cold climates (winters with temperatures far below zero).
- Sanitisation of faecal fraction: research on the implementation of chemical sanitisation of faeces with urea. This is an interesting method, but the practical implications need to be studied and developed.
- Sanitisation of urine: what happens in the urine when it is frozen and what are the implications for storage intervals?
- Pharmaceutical residues: studies of soil system when urine is used as a fertiliser. Effect on microbial community, speed of decomposition. Comparisons with sewage sludge, farmyard manure.
- Toilet design: development of risers and squat-plates for local production. Care given to needs of different users: children, disabled, elderly, men, women. Toilets of today need development since many do not divert as much urine as possible, and are unnecessarily difficult to clean.
- Systems analysis from an economic point of view. Comparison of investment and maintenance costs of urine diversion systems and conventional sanitation.
- Systems analysis from an environmental point of view. How do different activities affect the sustainability of the system, for example fertilisation strategies, choice of tank, joint measures or single toilets?
- What are the economical incentives for implementation of urine diversion? How to design the economical system with the regard to municipal responsibility and financial support/ interactions. How should the systems be organized and which are the most important drivers for the different stake holders.”
other related links
- Inactivation of bacteria and viruses in human urine depending on temperature and dilution rate.
- The Swedish Eco-Sanitation Experience pdf
- Ecosan Sanitation Facilities resources
- Reuse of faeces and urine – Appropedia: The sustainability wiki
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture
- Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture
- Human urine – Chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency
Denitrification, its importance once diluted, may be back on top, Princeton-led team says
source Princeton University:
Posted September 2, 2009; 01:00 p.m. by Kitta MacPherson
After more than a decade of inquiry, a Princeton-led team of scientists has turned the tables on a long-standing controversy to re-establish an old truth about nitrogen mixing in the oceans.
For decades, scientists thought they had a handle on the workings of an intricate natural mechanism known as the nitrogen cycle, essential to maintaining life on Earth. This process, one of nature’s most elegant sleights-of-hand, shuttles nitrogen from the soils to the oceans to the atmosphere and back.
A key part of that cycle, researchers once thought, was a process known as denitrification. In low-oxygen — or anaerobic — conditions seen in large stretches of ocean sediments and in a few important regions of the open ocean, bacteria act as “denitrifyers,” performing the crucial task of gobbling up nitrates and converting them to nitrogen gases, which complete the cycle by flowing back to the atmosphere.
In 1995, a group of Dutch scientists who had been studying the cycling of nitrogen through wastewater treatment plants came up with a startling conclusion. A new process, which they called anaerobic oxidation or “anammox” and that involved different bacteria, was the real player in removing nitrogen in low-oxygen environments, they said. They found the process worked to break down materials in sewage, and they confirmed that the mechanism also was operating in low-oxygen marine environments. They went so far as to suggest that the nitrogen cycle for oceans needed to be revised, as denitrification, according to their inquiry, did not play the major role that had been thought.
The notion was controversial and did not sit well with some scientists.
Now, a research team, led by Bess Ward, the William J. Sinclair Professor of Geosciences at Princeton University, writing in the Sept. 3 issue of Nature, is presenting data that could re-establish denitrification as the main actor in returning nitrogen to the air. After traveling through some of the key low-oxygen sites of the world’s oceans, the team has found the telltale chemical signatures proving that denitrification and not anammox is the pivotal process at work most of the time.
From left, Amal Jayakumar and Bess Ward of Princeton University, and Dave Langner, a marine technician, collect water samples from the Arabian Sea for their study of the nitrogen cycle. They deployed the instrument package from aboard the Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s ship, the R/V Roger Revelle. (Photo: Courtesy of the Ward Laboratory)
“In our paper, we report that in the world’s largest anoxic marine ecosystem — the low-oxygen waters of the Arabian Sea — denitrification rather than anammox is the dominant process,” said Ward, who is also chair of the Department of Geosciences at Princeton. “If denitrification is important in the Arabian Sea, then it is important on a global scale, and the nitrogen cycle must be evaluated in that light.”
The work, according to a leading expert in the marine nitrogen cycle, confirms his own observations of seawater processes showing that denitrification is key and indicates that the current mainstream view in science may be based on a false impression. “My suspicions that future work would, once again, demonstrate the importance of conventional denitrification have now been confirmed,” said Louis A. Codispoti, an oceanographer and research professor at Horn Point Laboratory, part of the University of Maryland in Cambridge, who was not involved with the research.
The researchers who discovered the anammox process nearly 15 years ago, led by Gifjs Kuenen, then at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, moved beyond the original discovery in wastewater treatment plants and found the reaction was also at work in removing nitrogen in a few regions of the ocean known as “oxygen minimum zones.” Zeroing in on a low-oxygen zone off the coast of Peru, the work of Dutch, Danish and German scientists found that anammox reactions, rather than denitrification, were operating there.
“That was astounding,” Ward remembered.
Thinking there may be a problem with the methodology or that scientists didn’t understand the nitrogen cycle as much as they thought they did, she began to devise experiments to seek answers.
Working with other members of her team over the next decade, they learned the methods of the European experts and started to plan to replicate the studies. In 2005, they confirmed that bacteria supporting the anammox reaction dominated the removal of nitrogen in a low-oxygen region off the Peru coast. But when they took samples of water in the Arabian Sea, they found just the opposite — denitrification was a major force there. The European researchers had found anammox in the Peru system but had never reported on the Arabian Sea.
The notion that microbial processes can vary in low-oxygen zones around the world is startling and important to know, the researchers said.
“We care because nitrogen is a key limiting nutrient to primary productivity,” said Jeremy Rich, a former postdoctoral fellow in Ward’s lab and now an assistant professor of environmental studies at Brown University, who contributed to the study. “We already knew these zones removed nitrogen, but now that we know the actual processes taking place, we’ll be in a much better position to predict how these zones change. And how these zones change will in turn influence primary productivity.”
The findings have forced the scientists to re-evaluate what they already knew.
“This made us think — this means the Arabian Sea is somehow different from the Peru system,” Ward said. “Previously, we thought they were the same. Clearly, something was different and that, in and of itself, is an important insight. And, clearly, denitrification is important — you cannot rewrite the nitrogen cycle.”
Because the Arabian Sea is the world’s largest anoxic marine ecosystem, that body’s most dominant process is almost certainly the primary way for nitrogen to be removed from the world’s oceans.
To confirm the conclusions, the team designed a new way of sampling and identifying chemicals and repeated the experiments. The results were the same.
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles in nature, providing a transformative process in which nitrogen is taken from the atmosphere and converted into a form that can be consumed by plants. Nitrogen makes up about 80 percent of the earth’s atmosphere. It is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules, including DNA.
Processing or fixation is necessary to convert gaseous nitrogen into forms usable by living organisms. Most is done by bacteria that possess a nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which is then converted by the bacteria to make their own organic compounds.
In low-oxygen conditions, denitrification by bacteria occurs when nitrates are converted to nitrogen gases like nitrous oxide and returned to the atmosphere. In the anammox process, nitrates are reduced to nitrites and then combine with ammonium before returning to the atmosphere.
In addition to Ward and Rich, other authors on the paper include: Silvia Bulow, a graduate student, and Amal Jayakumar, a senior professional specialist, in Princeton’s Department of Geosciences; Allan Devol, research professor of oceanography, and Bonnie Chang, a graduate student, at the University of Washington; and Hema Naik, a scientist, and Anil Pratihary, a graduate student, at the National Institute of Oceanography in India.
The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.
source: Princeton University